CHAPTER 4

NIGHT VISION GOGGLES

Night flight has assumed an increasingly important role in Army aviation. Because the threat operates around the clock, aircrews must be able to conduct operations at night as well as during the day. Night vision devices enable Army aviation to operate around the clock. This chapter outlines NVG training, criteria, and procedures.

4-1. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY IMPERATIVES

a. NVG Qualification. The Department of the Army requires that all Active and Reserve Component rotary-wing aviators in TOE and TDA positions be NVG qualified. Waiver authority for this requirement will not be delegated below the MACOM level.

b. Designated NVG Positions.

(1) Aviation brigade commanders will establish NVG-designated positions based on the unit's METL. They must designate at least 25 percent of the brigade's authorized rotary-wing positions as NVG. This requirement does not apply to nonrated crew member positions, nor does it apply to fixed-wing or AH-64 aviator positions. The only units exempt from this requirement are medium lift helicopter companies. In these companies, no less than 20 percent of the authorized aviator positions will be designated NVG. For example, one aviation battalion in a brigade designates 90 percent of its authorized positions as NVG. Another battalion in the same brigade designates only 5 percent. Staff elements assigned to an HHC would not have to sustain currency at all. The resulting brigade aggregate would still meet the DA standard.

(2) Units that do not fall under an aviation brigade headquarters (such as separate battalion and companies) must meet the DA-required percentages in (1) above for the respective units. The designation of these separate units must be approved by a colonel or an officer of higher rank within the appropriate chain of command. This authority will not be delegated lower than a colonel.

4-2. AIRCREW NVG TRAINING

a. The commander designates the crew member's three-month NVG evaluation period on DA Form 7120-R-E. The crew member's NVG semiannual training period begins the first day of the month following the end of the designated three-month NVG evaluation period or the first day of the month following the end of his birth month. It continues for six months in either case. ARNG crew members should refer to paragraph 2-2b.

b. Before conducting NVG training, units must have a written NVG SOP addressing specific requirements outlined in TC 1-204. Units also must document aircrew NVG training according to Chapter 3 of this publication.

4-3. RATED CREW MEMBER AND AEROSCOUT OBSERVER NVG TRAINING

NVG readiness levels are the training status classification of individual crew members for NVG purposes. Some crew members may have more than one RL. For example, a crew member may be RL 1 and RL 3 in the same aircraft: RL 1 for aircraft continuation training, and RL 3 for NVG refresher training. The commander may designate a crew member's NVG readiness level based on a records check. (ARNG personnel should refer to NGR (AR 95-1) 95-210.) Units will conduct NVG RL training and proficiency flight evaluations to reestablish NVG currency at night in the aircraft under actual NVG conditions. The only exceptions are the one-hour static cockpit training period required in initial NVG qualification training and the conditions outlined in paragraph b(1)(d) below. The criteria specified in paragraph 2-5 applies also to NVG RL progression. Aviators in NVG-designated positions must start their NVG RL progression no later than their day/night RL 1 progression date.

a. Initial NVG Qualification, NVG Aircraft Qualification, and NVG Refresher Training. A crew member is designated RL 3 for NVG purposes while undergoing initial NVG qualification, NVG aircraft qualification, or NVG refresher training. Before beginning RL 3 training, aviators must be qualified and current in the aircraft. Crew members must demonstrate proficiency in all required tasks within 45 consecutive days. The 45-day period is a "sliding window" within the progression period. Except for those tasks conducted during the one-hour cockpit drill period, the tasks trained outside the 45-day period must be reevaluated.

(1) Initial NVG qualification. Units will conduct initial NVG qualification training according to this chapter and the appropriate ATM. All of an aviator's NVG training must be conducted in the same aircraft group, and the aviator must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls. Qualification training for aeroscout observers is conducted at the USAAVNC or a USAAVNC-approved school only.

(a) Before their first NVG training flight, aviators must undergo a one-hour static cockpit training period in the applicable flight simulator or they must undergo training at night in a static aircraft. The minimum tasks that the aviator must perform or be briefed on during this period are aircraft emergency procedures, NVG failure, and a blind cockpit drill or "switch locations."

(b) Aviators will complete, as a minimum, ten flight hours of training on the tasks outlined in the appropriate ATM. The evaluation and the static cockpit training period may be applied to the ten-hour training requirement. During the progression period, aviators will complete academic training on the subjects listed in Figure 4-1.

Introduction to NVG

Night terrain interpretation

NVG ground and air safety

Night tactical operations, to include lighting

NVG navigation, to include map preparation

Aircraft modification requirements for NVG flight

Vision, depth perception, and night vision orientation



Figure 4-1. NVG academic subjects

(c) Commanders may determine an aviator's NVG proficiency based on a single flight evaluation after training or continual evaluation by an IP or SP. The appropriate ATM identifies mandatory tasks for evaluation.

(d) Units will use the USAAVNC NVG ETP to conduct NVG training at other than centralized training bases. They may obtain this ETP by writing to the Commander, US Army Aviation Center, ATTN: ATZQ-TDS-O, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-5000.

(2) NVG aircraft qualification. Aviators must be NVG qualified in each aircraft in which they perform NVG duties. They must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls, complete the training shown in Figure 4-2, and pass an NVG flight evaluation conducted at night in the aircraft by an NVG IP or SP. The evaluation may be continual. The appropriate ATM identifies mandatory tasks for evaluation.

  Hours
Academic training1  
SFTS or static aircraft training period2 1.0
Demonstration and practice of NVG tasks as per the individual ATM and
any additional tasks designated by the commander
5.0
Flight evaluation3 2.0
Total Time4
8.0

 
1Academic training should include the subjects shown in Figure 4-1.
2If done in an aircraft, the training must be conducted at night.
3This evaluation may be continual.
4The total time, excluding the SFTS or static aircraft training period, may be reduced to no less than 4.5 hours based on the IP's or SP's recommendation concerning the aviator's proficiency.

Figure 4-2. NVG training guide

(3) NVG refresher training. Aviators and AOs must undergo refresher training in only those aircraft in which they have not completed a one-hour NVG flight during the previous 180 consecutive days. They must have completed the one-hour NVG flight in an aircraft of the same mission, type, design, and series per AR 95-1. This requirement applies to primary, alternate, or additional aircraft. The aviator or AO must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls, complete the training shown in Figure 4-2, and pass an NVG flight evaluation conducted at night in the aircraft by an NVG IP or SP. The evaluation may be continual. The appropriate ATM identifies mandatory tasks for evaluation. AO refresher training requirements are in TCs 1-209 and 1-215.

b. NVG Mission Training.

(1) Commanders typically designate a crew member RL 2 for NVG purposes after the crew member completes RL 3 training. They also may designate the crew member RL 2 after a records check. (ARNG personnel should refer to NGR (AR) 95-210.) However, when aviators are undergoing initial NVG qualification training to comply with the DA requirement in paragraph 4-1a, they need not be designated RL 2 immediately. Commanders may delay initial NVG mission training if the aviator is not in a designated NVG position or if they do not require the aviator to maintain NVG currency. The goal of NVG mission training is proficiency in mission-related tasks. TCs 1-209 and 1-215 list AO mission training requirements.

(a) Initial NVG mission training consists of a minimum of ten hours of NVG flight training. An NVG UT may conduct this training. The unit will document completion of initial NVG mission training on the crew member's DA Form 7122-R and DA Form 759 on closeout.

(b) Criteria for NVG RL progression is the same as that prescribed in paragraph 2-5.

(c) Crew members must be NVG current before beginning mission training. ARNG personnel should refer to NGR (AR) 95-210.

(d) Environmental conditions or equipment shortages may preclude the use of NVG in the aircraft. If so, the commander may approve up to five hours in a compatible visual flight simulator for aviator NVG mission training.

(e) An aviator must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls during this training.

(2) For NVG progression to RL 1, crew members must complete an NVG evaluation conducted at night in the aircraft by an NVG IP or SP. This evaluation may be continual.

NOTE: Aviators who have undergone initial NVG mission training may not need additional mission training when transitioning into the same type of aircraft with the same type of mission. However, if mission tasks were not trained in the previous aircraft, the aviator must receive training on those tasks. For example, OH-6 aviators who are transitioning into an OH-58 may not require additional training unless they were not trained on a specific task. An aviator who received initial NVG mission training in a UH-1 would require initial mission training after becoming NVG qualified in the CH-47.

c. NVG Continuation Training. Crew members begin NVG continuation training after completing qualification or refresher training and any required mission training.

(1) NVG RL 1 aviators, AOs, or DACs assigned to an NVG-designated position or NVG PCs who are not assigned to an NVG-designated position must maintain the semiannual flying-hour and sustainment requirements described below.

(a) Aviators. Aviators must complete nine hours of NVG flight at night from a crew position with access to the flight controls. Commanders may not reprogram these hours. (AH-64 aviators are exempt from this requirement.) Aviators who have access to a compatible visual flight simulator may apply up to three hours flown in the simulator toward the nine-hour semiannual requirement.

(b) Aeroscout observers. AOs must complete six hours of NVG flight, all of which must be flown at night as a crew member in the left seat. TCs 1-209 and 1-215 list AO continuation training requirements.

(2) Minimum annual task and iteration requirements are in the appropriate ATM. These requirements consist of one iteration of all NVG tasks indicated by an "X" in the NVG column of the task list and any mandatory mission tasks identified by the commander.

(3) As indicated in d below, aviators who are not assigned to a designated NVG position or have not been designated as an NVG PC must maintain currency only.

(4) Aviators who maintain NVG PC status in an additional or alternate aircraft must meet the NVG semiannual flying-hour and sustainment requirements in (1)(a) above.

d. NVG Currency. The purpose of NVG currency is to maintain the necessary proficiency level to accomplish individual, crew, and mission tasks. The hour and flight frequency levels for individuals indicated in this paragraph are minimum requirements. Commanders should consider increasing the number of flight hours or reducing the time between NVG flights for less experienced or less proficient crew members.

(1) To be considered NVG current, aviators and AOs must participate every 45 days in a one-hour flight in either a compatible visual flight simulator or at night in the aircraft while wearing NVG. They must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls. Every 90 days, aviators must complete a one-hour flight in the aircraft at night while wearing NVG. They must occupy a position with access to the controls.

(2) Aircraft flight hours completed for currency must be in the same aircraft group per AR 95-1 95-1. For NVG purposes, all UH-1 aircraft are considered similar and in the same group.

(3) Aviators or AOs whose currency has lapsed must complete a one-hour NVG proficiency evaluation given by an NVG IP or SP. The evaluation must be in the aircraft at night, and the aviator or AO must have access to the flight controls. The minimum tasks to be evaluated are in the appropriate ATM. The purpose of this flight evaluation is to determine the crew member's flight proficiency using NVG. If the crew member's proficiency is adequate, currency is reestablished. To reestablish currency, an NVG IP may evaluate an NVG IP or SP. An IP may not evaluate an IP or SP for APART purposes. Commanders will determine the crew member's NVG RL on completion of the evaluation.

4-4. NONRATED CREW MEMBER NVG TRAINING (EXCLUDING AEROSCOUT OBSERVERS)

Commanders must establish, in writing, an NVG training program for NCMs when flight missions include the use of NCMs. (See paragraph 4-12.) The program will include NVG qualification, refresher, mission, and continuation training. An NVG IP or SP should supervise NCM training and evaluations. SPs, IPs, UTs, SIs, and FIs, as appropriate, will conduct the flight training. Units must document nonrated crew member NVG training according to Chapter 3 of this publication.

NOTE: The trainer or evaluator will not occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls while conducting NCM training or evaluations.

a. Initial NVG Qualification, NVG Aircraft Qualification, and NVG Refresher Training. An NCM is designated AR 95-1 3 for NVG purposes while undergoing initial NVG qualification, NVG aircraft qualification, or NVG refresher training. After being assigned to a crew position requiring the use of NVG, NCMs must complete RL progression within 90 consecutive days. (Reserve Component NCMs have one year to progress.) They must complete NVG qualification or refresher training within 60 consecutive days. (As discussed in paragraph 4-3a, this 60-day period is a "sliding window" within the progression period.)

(1) Initial NVG qualification.

(a) Academic training. Unit SPs, IPs, UTs, SIs, and FIs will use the current USAAVNC NVG ETP to conduct academic training at other than centralized training bases. Trainers will delete aviator-specific questions from written tests. They will add training material and questions pertaining to NCM tasks, missions, and local operating procedures. (If the current ETP does not include a test, units may produce a test locally.)

(b) Flight training. Before the first NVG training flight, NCMs must undergo a one-hour NVG training period at night in a static aircraft. As a minimum, they must receive training on egress procedures, NVG failure, and a blind cockpit drill or switch locations. They may apply this period and the NVG flight evaluation, if applicable, toward the 5.5-hour flight minimum required for NVG qualification and mission training. The evaluation may be continual or a single evaluation on completion of the training.

(2) NVG aircraft qualification. NCMs must be NVG qualified in each aircraft in which they perform NVG duties. They must complete the training shown in Figure 4-3. An NVG IP, SP, FI, or SI must administer the NVG flight evaluation at night in the aircraft. The evaluation may be continual. Mandatory evaluation tasks are in the appropriate ATM.

  Hours
Static aircraft 1.0
In-Flight Qualification 5.0
(Scanning techniques, identification of aircraft structural limitations, distance
estimation and depth perception, knowledge of restrictions to visibility, and
terrain interpretation.)
 
In-Flight Mission 3.0
(May be conducted concurrently with in-flight qualification.)
 
In-Flight Emergency 1.0
(May be conducted concurrently with in-flight qualification.)
 
In-Flight Evaluation 1.0
(May be continual.)
 
Total Time*
11.0

 
*The total time, including the hours spent in a static aircraft, may be reduced to no less than 5.5 hours based on the instructor's recommendation concerning the NCM's proficiency.

Figure 4-3. Nonrated crew member NVG qualification and mission training

(3) NVG refresher training. NCMs must undergo NVG refresher training if they have not completed a one-hour NVG flight during the previous 180 consecutive days. During this training, the NCM will complete an NVG evaluation. Trainers should use the training recommended in Figure 4-3 as a guide. Commanders will determine the amount and type of training required. This training will include academic instruction and a minimum of three hours of flight training.

b. NVG Mission Training.

(1) Commanders typically designate an NCM RL 2 for NVG purposes after the NCM completes RL 3 training. They also may designate the NCM RL 2 after a records check or a proficiency flight evaluation. (ARNG personnel should refer to NGR (AR) 95-210.) Proficiency in mission-related tasks, such as external loads, is the goal of mission training. As shown in Figure 4-3, three flight hours should be enough time to accomplish command- directed tasks. Before beginning NVG mission training, NCMs must be NVG current.

NOTE: An NCM who has completed NVG mission training may not need additional mission training when transitioning to the same type of aircraft with the same type of mission. For example, an NCM who completes NVG mission training in a UH-1 may not need additional training when transitioning into a UH-60. If mission tasks were not trained in the previous aircraft, the NCM must receive training on those tasks.

(2) NCMs must complete RL progression within 90 consecutive days. (Reserve Components have one year.)

(3) NVG mission training may be conducted concurrently with NVG qualification training. Commanders will select mission training tasks that reflect their unit's mission requirements. On completion of mission training, the NCM must pass an NVG evaluation. This evaluation may be continual.

c. NVG Continuation Training. All NCMs begin continuation training after completing qualification or refresher training and any required mission training.

(1) Commanders may designate NCMs RL 1 for NVG purposes if the records indicate that the crew member was previously NVG mission qualified. (ARNG personnel should refer to NGR (AR) 95-210.) The records also must show that the NCM has demonstrated proficiency in those tasks designated by the gaining unit commander.

(2) Minimum NVG semiannual flying-hour requirements are five hours at night in the aircraft while wearing NVG and performing crew duties.

(3) Minimum annual task and iteration requirements are specified in the appropriate ATM. These requirements consist of one iteration of all NVG tasks indicated by an "X" in the NVG column of the task list and any mandatory mission tasks identified by the commander.

d. NVG Currency. The purpose of NVG currency is to maintain the necessary proficiency level to accomplish individual, crew, and mission tasks. The hour and flight frequency levels for individuals indicated in this paragraph are minimum requirements. Commanders should consider increasing the number of flight hours or reducing the time between NVG flights for less experienced or less proficient NCMs.

(1) To be considered NVG current, NCMs must participate every 60 days in a one-hour flight at night in the aircraft while wearing NVG and performing crew duties.

(2) An NCM whose currency has lapsed must complete a one-hour NVG proficiency evaluation at night in the aircraft given by an NVG IP, SP, FI, or SI.

4-5. NONRATED CREW MEMBER NVG INSTRUCTOR

The unit commander appoints an NVG FI to assist in the implementation and evaluation of NVG qualification, refresher, mission, and continuation training for NCMs. The FI also will help implement and evaluate the academic portion of qualification or refresher training.

a. Prerequisites. FIs must be NVG qualified and current in the aircraft in which they will instruct. They also must meet the requirements of AR 95-1.

b. Qualification Requirements. To be designated an NVG FI, individuals must--

• Receive training in the areas in which they will instruct.

• Complete a standardization flight evaluation. (An NVG IP, SP, or SI will administer the FI flight evaluation in the aircraft at night. This evaluation will consist of the tasks required for NCM NVG qualification and other tasks designated by the commander.)

• Be designated, in writing, by the commander. (The designation will specify the areas of training or evaluation in which FI duties are to be performed.)

4-6. NONRATED CREW MEMBER NVG STANDARDIZATION INSTRUCTOR

NVG SIs provide technical supervision of the NVG standardization program for unit commanders. They are highly qualified NCMs who are selected on the basis of their training, knowledge, experience, judgment, maturity, and proven instructing ability.

a. Prerequisites. SIs must be NVG qualified and current in the aircraft in which they will instruct. They also must meet the requirements of AR 95-1.

b. Qualification Requirements. To be designated an NVG SI, individuals must--

• Receive training in the areas in which they will instruct.

• Complete a standardization flight evaluation. (An NVG IP, SP, or another SI will administer the SI flight evaluation in the aircraft at night. This evaluation will consist of the tasks required for NCM NVG qualification and other tasks designated by the commander.)

• Be designated, in writing, by the commander. (The designation will specify the areas of training or evaluation in which SI duties are to be performed.)

4-7. NVG PILOT IN COMMAND

NVG PCs are designated, in writing, by the commander. They must complete an NVG PC evaluation administered at night in the aircraft by an NVG IP or SP. They also must maintain NVG currency and continuation training requirements. An NVG PC must be current for all missions. (The intent is for the PC to be qualified to do the task during the day before doing the task using NVG.) The NVG PC who is not an NVG UT, IP, or SP is prohibited from conducting NVG mission (RL 2 progression) training.

4-8. NVG UNIT TRAINER

NVG UTs are appointed by the unit commander to assist in aviator or AO NVG mission and continuation training. They also assist with the academic portion of NVG qualification or refresher training. However, NVG UTs are prohibited from conducting emergency procedures training, NVG qualification and refresher flight training, and other training that requires an NVG IP or SP. The NVG UT may conduct NCM academic and flight training.

a. Prerequisites. The aviator must meet the requirements stated in AR 95-1. For NVG UT designation, aviators must be NVG qualified and current in the aircraft in which they perform UT duties.

NOTE: NVG UTs must maintain NVG currency and continuation training requirements.

b. Qualification Requirements. To be designated an NVG UT, aviators must--

• Receive training in the areas in which they will instruct.

• Complete a standardization evaluation. (An NVG IP or SP will administer the NVG UT evaluation in the aircraft at night. This evaluation will consist of NVG qualification tasks, mission tasks, and other tasks designated by the commander.)

• Be designated, in writing, by the commander. (The designation will specify the areas of training in which the NVG UT may instruct or train.)

4-9. NVG INSTRUCTOR PILOT

NVG IPs train and evaluate aviators, AOs, UTs, SIs, and FIs in designated aircraft. They are designated, in writing, by the commander.

a. Prerequisites. The aviator must meet the requirements stated in AR 95-1. In addition, an NVG IP must meet NVG PC requirements before being designated an NVG IP.

b. Qualification Requirements. For NVG IP designation, aviators must be a qualified and current IP in the aircraft in which they are to perform NVG IP duties per AR 95-1. They also must complete an NVG IP evaluation given at night in the aircraft by an NVG SP.

4-10. NVG STANDARDIZATION INSTRUCTOR PILOT

NVG SPs provide technical supervision of the unit's NVG standardization program. They are highly qualified IPs who are selected on the basis of their training, knowledge, experience, judgment, maturity, and proven instructor pilot ability. NVG SPs are designated, in writing, by the commander.

a. Prerequisites. The aviator must meet the requirements stated in AR 95-1. In addition, NVG SPs must meet NVG IP requirements before being designated an NVG SP.

b. Qualification Requirements. For NVG SP designation, aviators must be a qualified and current SP in the aircraft in which they are to perform NVG SP duties per AR 95-1. They also must complete an NVG SP evaluation given at night in the aircraft by an NVG SP.

4-11. ANNUAL NVG EVALUATION

a. All crew members who maintain currency must undergo an annual NVG evaluation whether they are assigned to a designated NVG position or not. For RCMs, an NVG IP or SP conducts the evaluation at night in the aircraft. An NVG IP, SP, SI, or FI conducts the evaluation for NCMs. (An NVG-qualified FI or SI, if available, must evaluate an NVG-qualified FE. If an NVG-qualified FI or SI is not available, an NVG IP or SP may conduct the evaluation.)

b. Crew members designated NVG RL 1 any time within their designated three-month evaluation period must complete all requirements of the annual NVG evaluation.

c. An NVG evaluation is required for each aircraft group in which the crew member perform duties. All tasks identified by an "X" in the NVG column of the task list in the appropriate ATM must be evaluated. Any NVG mission tasks designated by the commander also must be evaluated. All evaluations will be performed at night in the aircraft using NVG.

NOTE: For NVG purposes, all UH-1 aircraft are considered similar and within the same group.

d. Crew members undergoing RL 3 or RL 2 training are not subject to the NVG evaluation unless they were removed from RL 1 status because of a training deficiency.

e. Crew members completing the hands-on performance tests during RL progression in the commander-designated three-month annual evaluation period may receive credit for those tasks.

4-12. ADDITIONAL CREW MEMBER REQUIREMENTS

a. Single-Ship Operations.

(1) UH-1, UH-60, and CH-47 single-ship operations involving the use of NVG require at least three crew members who are NVG current and qualified in the aircraft. Exceptions are operations conducted at USAAVNC or NGB centralized training bases (WAATS and EAATS) according to or in support of USAAVNC-approved programs of instruction.

(2) Also excepted are air ambulance operational missions that require NCMs to perform medical duties. The aircrew in such cases still must be NVG qualified and current. The third crew member clears the aircraft, maintains aircraft separation, and so on until an onboard medical emergency requires reassignment of priorities.

(3) EH-1 or EH-60 operational missions will have a qualified and current NCM serving as observer until the aircraft ascends above terrain flight altitude and the PC directs the NCM to begin aircraft-specific missions.

NOTE: Rated aviators who are occupying crew positions with access to the flight controls and are undergoing RL training with an IP, an SP, or a UT satisfy the three crew member requirement.

b. Multiaircraft Operations. The two aviators flying UH-1, UH-60, and CH-47 aircraft during aided multiaircraft operations will be supplemented with additional crew members as indicated below.

(1) UH-1 and UH-60 series. These aircraft require one additional crew member wearing NVG (for a minimum crew of three). If both sides of the aircraft cannot be observed when necessary, a fourth crew member wearing NVG must be added.

(2) CH-47 series. These aircraft require two additional crew members wearing NVG (for a minimum crew of four). The PC will brief all crew members on crew duties and assign each crew member a sector for visual observation.

NOTE: The third and, if applicable, fourth crew member may use a different type of NVG than the crew members at the controls; for example, the GM-6 or the AN/AVS-6.

4-13. GENERAL NVG REQUIREMENTS

a. To be considered AN/AVS-6 qualified, a crew member qualified in the GM-6 series NVG must receive additional academic instruction on the AN/AVS-6. As a minimum, the training should include instruction on the AN/AVS-6 operator's manual and the differences in the operating limitations between the GM-6 series goggles and the AN/AVS-6.

b. To be considered AN/AVS-7 (ANVIS HUD) qualified, a crew member qualified in the AN/AVS-6 series NVG must receive additional academic and flight instruction on the AN/AVS-7. As a minimum, the qualification should include ground instruction on the AN/AVS-7 operator's manual, programming, and flight training. The NETT training materials or exportable training package will be used for qualification. Once qualified in the AN/AVS-7, crew members have no additional currency requirements.

NOTE: After crew members complete AN/AVS-6 and AN/AVS-7 initial qualification, units will ensure that an entry is made on the crew member's DA Form 7122-R and transcribed to the DA Form 759 on closeout.

c. While conducting NVG operations, all crew members with access to the flight controls must be qualified and current in the aircraft and NVG. In addition, they must wear the same type of NVG; for example, the GM-6 or the AN/AVS-6.

NOTE: Aviators who are not NVG qualified and current may perform NVG pilot duties provided they are current in the aircraft and are undergoing NVG RL training or evaluation per their ATP. However, a qualified and current NVG IP or SP wearing the same type of NVG must occupy a crew position with access to the flight controls.

d. All crew members with access to the flight controls in helicopters in the same formation must wear the same type of NVG as discussed in c above.

NOTE: A formation is a flight in which two or more aircraft are in such proximity to each other that any movement by the lead aircraft must be duplicated by the others.

e. The NVG restriction in d above does not apply to scout and/or attack team operations. However, crew members with access to the flight controls in individual aircraft must wear the same type of NVG. Crew members operating aircraft with the PNVS as the primary sensor (AH-64) or using different types of NVG (GM-6 versus AN/AVS-6) will maintain a minimum horizontal separation between the aircraft of five rotor diameters. They may reduce this five-rotor separation to no less than one disk during takeoffs and landings.

f. Single-pilot NVG flight is prohibited unless certain requirements are met. These requirements are outlined below.

(1) The pilot in an OH-58 or OH-6 must be assisted by a qualified and current AO (MOS 93B) occupying the copilot's station. The AO must have been trained in a DA-approved course specifically developed for that aircraft. In addition, the AO must be qualified in NVG operations.

(2) The pilot in an AH-64 operating the PNVS must be assisted by the CPG operating under the AN/AVS-6. Pilots will not fly AH-64 aircraft with an inoperative PNVS using NVG only.

(3) The CPG in an AH-1 must flip up the GM-6 or AN/AVS-6 to make an actual or simulated weapons engagement while the pilot remains goggled.

g. For the purpose of NVG training, NVG terrain flight is defined as flight at 200 feet or less above the highest obstacle. Airspeed and altitude restrictions are outlined below.

(1) NOE flight (when operating with the skids or wheels up to 25 feet above trees and vegetation in the flight path)--40 KIAS (maximum).

(2) Contour flight (when operating with the skids or wheels between 25 and 80 feet AHO)--70 KIAS (maximum).

(3) Low-level flight (when operating with the skids or wheels between 80 and 200 feet AHO)--whatever airspeed operational requirements dictate and aircraft limitations allow.

NOTE: The airspeeds shown above must be decreased if inclement weather or ambient light levels restrict visibility.

h. Authorized formations for NVG or night multiaircraft operations are outlined below.

(1) More than 80 feet AHO--straight trail, free cruise, staggered, and echelon formations.

(2) At 80 feet AHO and below--free cruise formations in conjunction with techniques of movement.

i. At no time in flight formation will a lead change be initiated by executing an acceleration to overtake the lead aircraft; only the lead aircraft will give the signal to initiate lead changes. Lead changes will be conducted as prescribed in the prebrief. Chalk 2 will acknowledge the lead's signal. The lead will make a heading change of 30 to 90 degrees and depart the formation. The lead then will maneuver the aircraft a minimum of eight rotor disks to the cleared side. Chalk 2, who becomes the new lead, determines and announces that the former lead is clear of the formation. The former lead will visually confirm the passing of each aircraft. After the last aircraft in formation has passed, the former lead will assume the trail position with the appropriate rotor separation and aircraft lighting configuration.

j. During NVG or night multiaircraft operations, aircraft will maintain a minimum separation of three rotor disks. Crew members may reduce this separation to no less than one disk during takeoffs and landings.

k. A search light or landing light, which has been modified by an infrared band-pass filter or pink light, must be installed on the aircraft and operational before aircrews conduct NVG operations. If the IR band-pass filter or pink light becomes inoperative during a mission, the PC will evaluate the impact on mission accomplishment. PC actions may vary from a minor mission adjustment to termination of the flight.

NOTE: The criteria in paragraphs g and k above do not apply to AH-64 aircraft. The PNVS is the primary night sensor, and the AN/AVS-6 is a supplemental night vision aid.

l. Daylight filter training is prohibited. Units in geographic areas with insufficient darkness over extended periods and without compatible visual flight simulators available should request a waiver for NVG currency.