CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The ultimate training objective of any combat unit is for the unit to be able to conduct combined arms training. Toward that end, effective individual and crew training programs form the foundation for an aviation unit training program. Once the unit establishes individual and crew training programs, it must integrate them into an effective collective training program. As one of the commander's primary training documents, TC 1-210 links individual and unit collective tasks. The commander also uses FMs 25-100 and 25-101 to link the aircraft operator's manual, ATM, and individual training program to the collective training program.

1-1. RESPONSIBILITIES

a. Commander. According to FM 25-100, the commander is the primary training manager and trainer for his unit; he is responsible for the ATP. He bases training on the unit's wartime mission, maintains standards, and evaluates proficiency. He also provides the required resources and develops and executes training plans that result in proficient individuals, leaders, and units. The commander has subordinate leaders (officers and NCOs), staff officers, instructor pilots, and standardization officers that help him plan and prepare aviation training.

b. Operations Officer/S3. The operations officer/S3 is the commander's principal staff officer on matters of operations and training. He identifies training requirements and prepares and carries out training programs. He also determines and allocates training resources, plans and conducts training inspections, and compiles training records.

c. Standardization Officer. The aviation standardization officer is the commander's technical advisor. He helps the commander and the operations officer develop, implement, and manage the ATP.

d. Evaluators/Trainers. These individuals are the SPs, IPs, IEs, MEs, FIs, and SIs who help the commander administer the ATP. They evaluate, train, and provide technical supervision for the aviation standardization program as specified by the commander.

e. Unit Trainers. UTs are aviators designated to instruct in areas of specialized training. They assist in unit training programs and achieve established training goals.

f. Safety Officer. The aviation safety officer assists the commander in the safety administration of the ATP. He advises the commander on all safety issues, to include the assessment of risk and the development and coordination of plans and orders to conserve warfighting resources.

g. Crew Members. These individuals perform duties aboard an in-flight aircraft that are essential to the operation of the aircraft. Crew members are either rated or nonrated.

NOTE: The commander will develop an ATM and a corresponding ATP if a DA-approved ATM is nonexistent. Crew members are responsible for satisfying all of their ATP requirements.

(1) Rated crew member. An RCM is an aviator. Therefore, the terms "rated crew member" and "aviator" are used synonymously where applicable.

(2) Nonrated crew member. NCMs are individuals other than aviators who perform duties aboard an aircraft that are essential to the operation of the aircraft. They work with aviators under the team concept; their duties are included in the corresponding ATM.

h. Noncrew Members. These individuals perform duties that directly relate to the in-flight mission of the aircraft but are not essential to the operation of the aircraft. Their duties cannot be performed by assigned crew members.

NOTE: AR 600-106 defines nonrated crew members and noncrew members.

i. Maintenance Test Pilots. MPs perform maintenance test flights in the aircraft. They also help the commander with aircraft maintenance management.

j. Master Gunner. The commander designates the master gunner to help with the administration of the unit helicopter gunnery program. The master gunner's duties are described more fully in FM 1-140.

k. Engineer Flight Test Pilots.

(1) Engineering flight test pilots perform duties in research and development aircraft or projects. They must meet all APART requirements and will receive continuation training as outlined in Chapter 5 of the appropriate ATM.

(2) Engineering flight test pilots also must satisfactorily complete tasks contained in a unit-developed, MACOM-approved task list and the annual hands-on performance test component of the APART. The commander will develop task lists for each aircraft category. Tasks accomplished in any aircraft within a category will count toward completion of the task list. As a minimum, the task list will include all base tasks listed in the appropriate ATM.

(3) In addition, engineering flight test pilots will fly 48 hours annually in their primary aircraft and 24 hours in their alternate aircraft. They must complete half of each requirement from the designated pilot station of the applicable aircraft.

l. Department of the Army Civilians, USAR Military Technicians, and Army National Guard Technicians. DACs and ARNG technicians must comply with Chapters 2 and 8 of the appropriate ATM for the initial aircraft qualification and annual standardization flight evaluation. ARNG technicians will comply with NGR (AR) 95-210. The flight evaluation is conducted during a designated quarter and includes only those tasks necessary to meet the requirements in the individual's job description. The flight evaluation for alternate or additional aircraft need not be conducted during the same quarter as that for the primary aircraft. In addition, USAR military technicians and ARNG technicians must--

(1) Satisfactorily complete the annual hands-on performance test components of the APART and also the operator's manual examination by the end of the designated quarter of the APART period.

(2) Comply with all ATM requirements for aircraft designated by their military commander or technician supervisor.

1-2. INDIVIDUAL, CREW, AND COLLECTIVE TRAINING

To design and manage an effective ATP, the commander must analyze individual, crew, and collective training. The METL identifies collective training and defines the unit as a member of the combined arms team. To ensure absolute efficiency of Army Aviation in the combined arms effort, crews must function as a unit. Individual proficiency in the tasks that are required to operate the aircraft also is essential to the training effort.

a. Individual Training. Individual training is the building block for crew training. With assistance from the unit instructor pilot, the aviation platoon leader is responsible for individual training. The operator's manual, the ATM, and TC 1-210 guide the platoon leader and the instructor pilot in training the individual to mission-ready standards. Individual aviators and crew members must ensure that they satisfy all ATP requirements.

b. Crew Training.

(1) Crew training, the first step in developing a unit collective training plan, is the building block for team training. The aviation platoon leader and unit instructor pilots train the crew. The platoon leader ensures that the crew is proficient in ATM tasks and in the tactics, techniques, and procedures outlined in the appropriate FM 1-100 series publication. Using the ATM and the unit's mission essential task list, the commander combines individual training with crew training.

(2) The commander, his subordinate leaders, and the trainers must implement the crew coordination program into crew training. Crew coordination is critical training; it improves mission performance and enhances safety. To effectively employ modern Army aircraft with their complex missions, more than one crew member must perform crew tasks.

c. Collective Training. Collective training, which involves more than one aircraft, encompasses all training including multihelicopter combined arms operations. An example of collective training is an air cavalry troop reconnaissance team providing security while simultaneously calling for and adjusting artillery as an infantry company breaches an obstacle.

(1) Teams. Aircraft involved in collective training are called teams. The team is the building block for platoon and company training.

(a) The platoon leader is responsible for team training. Team training marks the transition from crew to collective training.

(b) The company commander integrates the platoon and executes company training.

(c) The battalion commander focuses company training and integrates the company into combined arms training.

(d) The brigade commander provides the guidance and resources for battalion training. He supports the division or corps commander's combined arms training goals and wartime mission-essential tasks. He integrates the total spectrum of aviation combat, combat support, and combat service support in the division or corps battle space.

(2) Mission-essential tasks. The unit's mission-essential tasks link crew and collective training. These tasks are collective tasks that support the unit's wartime mission. Along with the appropriate ATM, FM 25-101 helps the commander link individual and crew training with the tasks required to execute the wartime mission. The MTPs, FM 1-100 series manuals, and unit SOP establish the tasks to be performed, the conditions under which the tasks are performed, and the standard that the unit must maintain for unit readiness.

(3) Combined arms training.

(a) Combined arms training is the training pinnacle in the preparation for combat. It is collective training that associated combat arms, combat support, and combat service support units conduct jointly. Combined arms training integrates all associated combat systems and applies that capability on the battlefield at the critical place and time.

(b) Combined arms training normally is executed at the battalion task force level and above. However, collective training at any level is considered combined arms training any time it is conducted with another combat arm. Some examples of collective training are: training to support brigade or division EXEVALs, CTC rotations, deployment exercises, combined arms live-fire exercises, brigade CPXs, and battle command training programs.

1-3. INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE TRAINING INTEGRATION

To achieve maximum training results from limited resources, planning must be detailed and flying hours that are devoted solely to individual training must be kept to a minimum. The integration of individual continuation training into collective training makes maximum use of every hour of flight time. Units must incorporate collective training into every element of the ATP.

1-4. INDIVIDUAL TASKS AND COLLECTIVE MISSION-ESSENTIAL TASKS

a. Tasks are clearly defined, measurable activities that soldiers and units must perform. These are specific activities that contribute to the accomplishment of missions or other requirements.

b. The link between the collective mission-essential tasks and the individual tasks that support them is critical to the battle-focused training concept. The commander plans, prepares, executes, and evaluates training based on the METL. He selects critical battle tasks from the subordinate unit's METL and emphasizes the execution of those tasks during training and evaluation. Figure 1-1 illustrates the execution of aviation training.

Figure 1-1. Aviation training

1-5. BATTLE DRILLS

Battle drills support battle tasks. They are collective actions that individual crew members and aircrews rapidly execute without applying a deliberate decision-making process. Battle drills--

• Require minimal leader orders to accomplish.

• Are standard throughout the Army.

• Are sequential actions that are vital to success in combat or are critical to the preservation of life.

• Apply to platoon or small units.

• Are trained responses to enemy actions or leader orders.

1-6. SITUATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISES

a. STXs are limited, mission-related exercises. They train crews or crew members to execute one collective task or a group of related tasks and drills through practice. (The terms "situational exercise" and "scenario" are used synonymously.) Based on the unit METL, commanders may modify or expand STXs to meet special mission requirements. These exercises aid in the transition from individual task proficiency to collective task proficiency. The STX--

(1) Focuses training on weaknesses identified in previous training and evaluations.

(2) Provides repetitive training on parts of missions.

(3) Saves time by providing information needed to develop training.

(4) Allows the aviator, crew, or unit to practice selected critical parts of the mission before rehearsing the entire mission.

b. Commanders may develop STXs as a training and ATP management tool. If used, the STXs should permit simultaneous accomplishment of individual and collective tasks.

c. The following tasks will help the commander develop STXs that support METL requirements:

(1) Select the battle task to be performed. A battle task is a task that must be accomplished by a subordinate unit organization if the next higher headquarters is to accomplish a mission-essential task.

(2) Establish the conditions and standards for the selected battle task. Use the appropriate ATM/MTP.

(3) Develop a mission statement to support the battle task. One STX may have numerous mission statements.

(4) Identify the company METL task that supports the battle task. For example--

(a) Battle task: Conduct a deliberate attack.

(b) Supporting METL task: Conduct combat operations.

(5) Develop collective supporting tasks. (Use MTP tasks.)

(6) Apply time standards.

(7) Identify references.

d. Situational training exercises should have realistic training objectives. The commander must ensure that the STXs do not become "canned" training flights. The training goal must be clearly defined, and all participants in the training must understand the objectives. Figure 1-2 shows an example of an STX.

e. ARTEP mission training plans give units a clear description of what and how to train to achieve wartime mission proficiency. They elaborate on wartime missions in terms of comprehensive training and evaluation outlines. They also provide exercise concepts and related training management aids to help field commanders plan and execute effective unit training. The applicable ARTEP mission training plan gives examples for developing and using STXs.

1-7. BATTLE ROSTERING

a. Battle rostering is the designation of two or more individuals to routinely perform as a crew. Studies show that certain specific performance areas, such as target engagements, may benefit from battle rostering. Commanders may battle-roster crews at their discretion. However, commanders must be aware that prolonged battle rostering may produce crew complacency, overconfidence, implicit coordination behaviors, and nonstandard procedures which result in a degradation of crew proficiency. Therefore, battle rostering is most beneficial when used for short periods, such as in training exercises, ARTEPs, operational developments, and gunnery training.

b. When battle-rostering crews, commanders should consider individual aviation, flight, and unit mission experience. They also should consider individual personalities and maturity. For example, a WO1 PC experienced in the unit's mission could be battle-rostered with a newly assigned CW4.

Figure 1-2. Example of an STX

1-8. RISK MANAGEMENT

Commanders are responsible for the effective assessment of risk when they establish a unit training program. Chapter 5 provides a simple decision-making process that will help the commander balance training demands against risk. Commanders should consider both the individual and the crew when they assess mission risks. They also must use risk-management concepts continually to prevent the unnecessary loss of soldiers and equipment.

1-9. AIRCREW COORDINATION

a. Aircrew coordination is a set of principles, attitudes, procedures, and techniques that transforms individuals into an effective crew. It is a vital part of the overall ATP. As directed by the Department of the Army, all crew members must become aircrew coordination qualified.

NOTE: At the time of this revision, suspense dates for qualification in aircrew coordination are being staffed and will be issued by message at a later date.

b. Units will conduct initial aircrew coordination qualification training according to this publication and the USAAVNC Aircrew Coordination Exportable Training Package. The ETP includes slides and video tapes. To obtain information about this ETP, units may write to the Commander, US Army Aviation Center, ATTN: ATZQ-ATB-NS, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-5218.

(1) Qualified instructors. An SP or IP qualified in aircrew coordination must conduct the pretraining and final evaluations for rated crew members. For nonrated crew members, an aircrew-coordination-qualified SP, IP, SI, or FI may conduct the evaluations. Properly trained UTs may conduct the academic and flight training, but they may not conduct the evaluations. A qualified SP or IP can qualify other SPs, IPs, SIs, and FIs. A qualified SI or FI can qualify other SIs or FIs. For example, a qualified IP can qualify an SP or a qualified FI can qualify an SI.

(2) Documentation. The aircrew coordination qualification will be annotated on the individual's DA Form 7122-R (Crew Member Training Record). It also will be noted in the Remarks section of the individual's DA Form 759 (Individual Flight Record and Flight Certificate--Army).

c. Aircrew coordination should be emphasized during readiness level progressions. It will be evaluated during the APART.

d. The inclusion of aircrew coordination in ATM task descriptions reflects the philosophy that no preflight, flight, or postflight task is an individual undertaking; each task can be performed more effectively and safely by the coordinated efforts of the entire crew. ATM revisions will include individual and crew-coordinated actions in the task descriptions. The P*, P, PC, PI, AO, FE, and CE will perform aircrew coordination actions. Individual and crew-coordinated actions apply to all modes of flight. A discussion of both types of actions follows.

(1) Individual actions. These actions are the portions of a task that an individual crew member must do. An example of an individual action is the completion of the engine start and run-up checks by the P* and the P individually from their designated seats.

(2) Crew-coordinated actions. These actions require crew members to communicate appropriately with each other and to perform their individual actions in the proper sequence and at the proper time to ensure safe and efficient task execution. An example of a crew-coordinated action is a hover power check. The P* performs the takeoff to a hover and keeps his attention focused outside the aircraft to maintain a stationary hover. Meanwhile, the P monitors the aircraft instruments and compares the actual readings with those predicted.

e. Research and studies conducted by the US Army Aviation Center, the US Army Research Institute, and the US Army Safety Center show the importance of good aircrew coordination. An analysis of US Army aviation accidents revealed that a significant percentage of these accidents resulted from one or more crew coordination errors committed before or during the mission flight. Often an accident was the result of a sequence of undetected crew errors that combined to produce a catastrophic result. Additional research by USARI showed that even when accidents are avoided, these same errors can result in degraded mission performance. A systematic analysis of these error patterns identified specific areas where crew-level training could reduce the occurrence of such errors and break the error chains leading to accidents and poor mission performance.

f. Broadly defined, aircrew coordination is the interaction between crew members necessary for the safe, efficient, and effective performance of tasks. Working with this definition, USAAVNC and USARI translated crew coordination concepts into a set of 13 basic qualities. These qualities have been incorporated into the USAAVNC Aircrew Coordination ETP. Each basic quality is defined in terms of observable behaviors that represent superior, satisfactory, or unsatisfactory levels of crew coordination. The paragraphs below summarize these basic qualities and include specific performance goals. (Refer to the USAAVNC Aircrew Coordination ETP for more detailed guidance.) Commanders will use these performance descriptions in evaluating and qualifying all crew members.

(1) Flight team leadership and crew climate are established and maintained. This quality addresses the relationships among the crew and the overall climate of the flight deck. Aircrews are teams with a designated leader and clear lines of authority and responsibility. The PC sets the tone for the crew and maintains the working environment. Effective leaders use their authority but do not operate without the participation of other crew members. When crew members disagree on a course of action, they must be effective in resolving the disagreement. Specific goals include the following:

(a) The PC actively establishes an open climate where crew members freely talk and ask questions.

(b) Crew members value each other for their expertise and judgment. They do not allow differences in rank and experience to influence their willingness to speak up.

(c) Alternative viewpoints are a normal and occasional part of crew interaction. Crew members handle disagreements in a professional manner, avoiding personal attacks or defensive posturing.

(d) The PC actively monitors the attitudes of crew members and offers feedback when necessary. Each crew member displays the proper concern for balancing safety with mission accomplishment.

(2) Premission planning and rehearsal are accomplished. Premission planning includes all preparatory tasks associated with planning the mission. These tasks include planning for VFR, IFR, and terrain flight. They also include assigning crew member responsibilities and conducting all required briefings and brief-backs. Premission rehearsal involves the crew's collective visualization and discussion of expected and potential unexpected events for the entire mission. Through this process, all crew members think through contingencies and actions for difficult segments or unusual events associated with the mission and develop strategies to cope with contingencies. Specific goals include the following:

(a) The PC ensures that all actions, duties, and mission responsibilities are partitioned and clearly assigned to specific crew members. Each crew member actively participates in the mission planning process to ensure a common understanding of mission intent and operational sequence. The PC prioritizes planning activities so that critical items are addressed within the available planning time.

(b) The crew identifies alternate courses of action in anticipation of potential changes in METT-T and is fully prepared to implement contingency plans as necessary. Crew members mentally rehearse the entire mission by visualizing and discussing potential problems, contingencies, and responsibilities.

(c) The PC ensures that crew members take advantage of periods of low workload to rehearse upcoming flight segments. Crew members continuously review remaining flight segments to identify required adjustments. Their planning is consistently ahead of critical lead times.

(3) Appropriate decision-making techniques are applied. Decision making is the act of rendering a solution to a problem and defining a plan of action. It must involve risk assessment. The quality of decision making and problem solving throughout the planning and execution phases of the mission depends on the information available, time constraints, and level of involvement and information exchange among crew members. The crew's ability to apply appropriate decision-making techniques based on these criteria has a major impact on the choice and quality of their resultant actions. Although the entire crew should be involved in the decision-making and problem-solving process, the PC is the key decision maker. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Under high time stress, crew members rely on a pattern-recognition decision process to produce timely responses. They minimize deliberation consistent with the available decision time. Crew members focus on the most critical factors influencing their choice of responses. They efficiently prioritize their specific information needs within the available decision time.

(b) Under moderate to low time stress, crew members rely on an analytical decision process to produce high-quality decisions. They encourage deliberation when time permits. To arrive at the most unbiased decision possible, crew members consider all important factors influencing their choice of action. They consistently seek all available information relative to the factors being considered.

(4) Actions are prioritized and workload is equitably distributed. This quality addresses the effectiveness of time and workload management. It assesses the extent to which the crew, as a team, avoids distractions from essential activities, distributes and manages workload, and avoids individual task overload. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members are always able to identify and prioritize competing mission tasks. They never ignore flight safety and other high-priority tasks. They appropriately delay low-priority tasks until those tasks do not compete with more critical tasks. Crew members consistently avoid nonessential distractions so that these distractions do not impact on task performance.

(b) The PC actively manages the distribution of mission tasks to prevent the overloading of any crew member, especially during critical phases of flight. Crew members watch for workload buildup on others and react quickly to adjust the distribution of task responsibilities.

(5) Unexpected events are managed effectively. This quality addresses the crew's performance under unusual circumstances that may involve high levels of stress. Both the technical and managerial aspects of coping with the situation are important. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew actions reflect extensive rehearsal of emergency procedures in prior training and premission planning and rehearsal. Crew members coordinate their actions and exchange information with minimal verbal direction from the PC. They respond to the unexpected event in a composed, professional manner.

(b) Each crew member appropriately or voluntarily adjusts individual workload and task priorities with minimal verbal direction from the PC. The PC ensures that each crew member is effectively used when responding to the emergency and that the workload is efficiently distributed.

(6) Statements and directives are clear, timely, relevant, complete, and verified. This quality refers to the completeness, timeliness, and quality of information transfer. It includes the crew's use of standard terminology and feedback techniques to verify information transfer. Emphasis is on the quality of instructions and statements associated with navigation, obstacle clearance, and instrument readouts. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members consistently make the required callouts. Their statements and directives are always timely.

(b) Crew members use standard terminology in all communications. Their statements and directives are clear and concise.

(c) Crew members actively seek feedback when they do not receive acknowledgment from another crew member. They always acknowledge understanding of intent and request clarification when necessary.

(7) Mission situational awareness is maintained. This quality considers the extent to which crew members keep each other informed about the status of the aircraft and the mission. Information reporting helps the aircrew maintain a high level of situational awareness. The information reported includes aircraft position and orientation, equipment and personnel status, environmental and battlefield conditions, and changes to mission objectives. Awareness of the situation by the entire crew is essential to safe flight and effective crew performance. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members routinely update each other and highlight and acknowledge changes. They take personal responsibility for scanning the entire flight environment, considering their assigned workload and areas of scanning.

(b) Crew members actively discuss conditions and situations that can compromise situational awareness. These include, but are not limited to, stress, boredom, fatigue, and anger.

(8) Decisions and actions are communicated and acknowledged. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members are kept informed of decisions made and actions taken by another crew member. Crew members should respond verbally or by appropriately adjusting their behaviors, actions, or control inputs to clearly indicate that they understand when a decision has been made and what it is. Failure to do so may confuse crews and lead to uncoordinated operations. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members announce decisions and actions, stating their rationale and intentions as time permits. The P verbally coordinates the transfer of or inputs to controls before action.

(b) Crew members always acknowledge announced decisions or actions and provide feedback on how these decisions or actions will affect other crew tasks. If necessary, they promptly request clarification of decisions or actions.

(9) Supporting information and actions are sought from the crew. This quality addresses the extent to which supporting information and actions are sought from the crew by another crew member, usually the PC. Crew members should feel free to raise questions during the flight regarding plans, revisions to plans, actions to be taken, and the status of key mission information. Specific goals include the following:

(a) The PC encourages crew members to raise issues or offer information about safety or the mission. Crew members anticipate impending decisions and actions and offer information as appropriate.

(b) Crew members always request assistance from others before they become overloaded with tasks or before they must divert their attention from a critical task.

(10) Crew member actions are mutually cross-monitored. This quality addresses the extent to which a crew uses cross-monitoring as a mechanism for breaking error chains that lead to accidents or degraded mission performance. Crew members must be capable of detecting each other's errors. Such redundancy is particularly important when crews are tired or overly focused on critical task elements and thus more prone to make errors. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members acknowledge that crew error is a common occurrence and that the active involvement of the entire crew is required to detect and break the error chains that lead to accidents. They constantly watch for crew errors affecting flight safety or mission performance. They monitor their own performance as well as that of others. When they note an error, they quickly and professionally inform and assist the crew member committing the error.

(b) The crew thoroughly discusses the two-challenge rule before executing the mission. When required, they effectively implement the two-challenge rule with minimal compromise to flight safety.

NOTE: The two-challenge rule allows one crew member to automatically assume the duties of another crew member who fails to respond to two consecutive challenges. For example, the P* becomes fixated, confused, task overloaded, or otherwise allows the aircraft to enter an unsafe position or attitude. The P first asks the P* if he is aware of the aircraft position or attitude. If the P* does not acknowledge this challenge, the P issues a second challenge. If the P* fails to acknowledge the second challenge, the P assumes control of the aircraft.

(11) Supporting information and actions are offered by the crew. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members anticipate and offer supporting information and actions to the decision maker--usually the PC--when apparently a decision must be made or an action taken. Specific goals include the following:

(a) Crew members anticipate the need to provide information or warnings to the PC or P* during critical phases of the flight. They provide the required information and warnings in a timely manner.

(b) Crew members anticipate the need to assist the PC or P* during critical phases of flight. They provide the required assistance when needed.

(12) Advocacy and assertion are practiced. This quality concerns the extent to which crew members are proactive in advocating a course of action they consider best, even when others may disagree. Specific goals include the following:

(a) While maintaining a professional atmosphere, crew members state the rationale for their recommended plans and courses of action when time permits. They request feedback to make sure others have correctly understood their statements or rationale. Time permitting, other crew members practice good listening habits; they wait for the rationale before commenting on the recommended plans or courses of action.

(b) The PC actively promotes objectivity in the cockpit by encouraging other crew members to speak up regardless of their rank or experience. Junior crew members do not hesitate to speak up when they disagree with senior members; they understand that more experienced aviators can sometimes commit errors or lose situational awareness. Every member of the crew displays a sense of responsibility for adhering to flight regulations, operating procedures, and safety standards.

(13) Crew-level after-action reviews are conducted. This quality addresses the extent to which crew members review and critique their actions during or after a mission segment, during periods of low workload, or during the mission debriefing. Specific goals include the following:

(a) The crew critiques major decisions and actions. They identify options and factors that should have been discussed and outline ways to improve crew performance in future missions.

(b) The critique of crew decisions and actions is professional. "Finger pointing" is avoided; the emphasis is on education and improvement of crew performance.

1-10. SYMBOL USAGE AND WORD DISTINCTIONS

a. Symbol Usage. The diagonal (/) indicates or or and. For example, IP/SP may mean IP or SP or it may mean IP and SP.

b. Word Distinctions.

(1) Will, must, should, and may. These words distinguish between mandatory, preferred, and acceptable methods of accomplishment.

(a) Will or must indicates a mandatory requirement.

(b) Should indicates a preferred, but not mandatory, method of accomplishment.

(c) May indicates an acceptable method of accomplishment.

(2) NVS, NVG, and NVD.

(a) NVS refers to the night vision system that is attached to the aircraft; for example, the TADS/PNVS.

(b) NVG refers to any night vision goggle image intensifier system; for example, the AN/AVS-6 (ANVIS).

(c) NVD refers to NVS, NVG, or NVS and NVG.