ADJUSTMENT OF OTHER FIRE SUPPORT MEANS
ADJUSTMENT OF OTHER FIRE SUPPORT MEANS
CLOSE AIR SUPPORT
CLOSE AIR SUPPORT
|This section implements STANAG 3736.|
8-1. TYPES OF REQUESTS
a. There are two types of CAS requests: preplanned and immediate. Actual request procedures are outlined in the FM 6-20 series manuals. The CAS requests may be initiated by any level and must include the following elements:
- Elevation (in mean feet above sea level).
- Contact points.
b. The procedures for the forward air controller or the acting FAC included in this chapter conform to the methods and procedures in TC 90-7 and FM 90-20. (Normally, the Air Force air liaison officer [ALO] or other tactical air control party [TACP] personnel will perform FAC duties.)
a. Control Measures. There are three control measures for CAS missions (Figure 8-1) with which the company FSO will be concerned.
(2) The initial point (IP) is the point from which the aircraft starts the timed run toward the pull-up point (PUP).
(3) The pull-up point is the point at which an aircraft at low level begins a climb to identify the target and to gain altitude for the strike on the target.
b. Processing. The maneuver battalion fire support element determines if the target and the current situation are appropriate for a CAS request. If so, a CAS request (preplanned or immediate, as appropriate) is submitted. If the request is approved, the ALO or the FSO obtains mission data, prepares attack information, and transmits these data to the individual who directs the mission. (If no Air Force FAC is in position to control the mission and the aircraft are equipped with FM radios, the company FSO directs the mission.) Examples of mission data and attack information are given in paragraphs c and d.
c. Mission Data. Mission data (also referred to as lineup) may be as follows:
d. Attack Information. This information in the nine-line brief format (Figure 8-2) may be as follows:
|NOTE: The observer must transmit the attack information to the aircraft if the pilots do not already have the information.|
Figure 8-1. CAS MISSION CONTROL MEASURES
Figure 8-2 SAMPLE CAS BRIEF
e. Target Marking.
(2) Alternate methods of marking a target for a CAS mission are with smoke, WP, or ground burst illumination. As a rule of thumb, the marking round should impact no later than 20 seconds before the aircraft reaches the target. The company FSO can get the aircraft IP-to-target time from the ALO or battalion FSO and the time of flight of the round from the FDC. The time to fire the marking round is determined by adding 20 seconds and TOF and then subtracting that total from the aircraft IP-to-target time. The answer is the time that should elapse from when the aircraft departs the IP until the marking round is fired. If smoke is used to mark the target, an additional 10-second buildup time must be added.
|NOTE: If smoke is used to mark the target, ensure that the smoke is beyond or downwind of the target. This will keep the smoke from obscuring the target from the pilot's view. In describing the target, distance and direction should be given from the base of the smoke.|
IP-to-target time for aircraft is 2 minutes 30 seconds.
8-3. MISSION CONTROL
a. The company FSO's control of the mission begins when the flight leader makes initial contact at the CP. Once communication is established, the company FSO must ask the flight leader for his lineup information. The company FSO must then verify that the flight leader has the current attack information. The received mission data may differ from the mission data provided earlier by the ALO. If the pilot does not have the attack information or if some information has changed, the company FSO transmits the needed information to him in the format of the CAS brief (Figure 8-2).
b. Before the aircraft reaches the IP, the company FSO must determine the desired back-off time for firing the marking round. He should send his fire mission to the battery as an at my command mission.
c. Once ready, the company FSO clears the aircraft to depart the IP. He asks the flight leader to report his departure so that the company FSO can determine the time to fire the marking round. The company FSO should be prepared to fire the marking round at the desired time even if communication with the aircraft is interrupted.
d. The company FSO must watch for the aircraft. As soon as it is in sight, he orients the flight leader to the marking smoke by using the clock method with the nose of the aircraft being 12 o'clock. Once the flight leader has identified the marking smoke, the company FSO gives him a cardinal direction and a distance in meters to the target from the marking smoke. Once the company FSO is certain the flight leader has identified the target correctly and the aircraft is pointed at the target, he clears the aircraft to strike the target (cleared hot). The company FSO must be prepared at any time before actual ordnance delivery to call off the attack (abort) if the aircraft starts to attack the wrong target. He must be ready to reattack the target if additional ordnance is required or if the pilot requests a reattack.
|NOTE: It is the company FSO's responsibility to ensure that the correct target is attacked and that friendly troops are not needlessly endangered.|
The three mandatory radio transmissions for CAS missions with which the company FSO will be concerned are discussed below.
(2) Cleared Hot. This transmission is made when the FAC or company FSO is certain that it is safe for the aircraft to release the ordnance without endangering friendly ground forces. It is given as soon as possible after the aircraft is pointed at the target area.
(3) Cleared for Reattack. This transmission is given if the pilot requests permission to reattack the target. Normally, permission to reattack the target is given if there are no planned fires scheduled for the target immediately after the first attempt to attack the target.
FLIGHT LEADER (HAMMER 11) COMPANY FSO (K12) K12 THIS IS HAMMER 11, NOW AT CP. THIS IS K12, REQUEST LINEUP, OVER. HAMMER 11, MISSION NUMBER 1210027. I HAVE 2 A-7s, 6 MAVERICKS AND 20-MM ON EACH. ON STATION FOR 20 MINUTES. THIS IS K12, ROGER. DO YOU HAVE ATTACK INFORMATION? OVER. HAMMER 11, AFFIRMATIVE. THIS IS K12, ROGER, OUT. K12 THIS IS HAMMER 11, APPROACHING IP. THIS IS K12, ROGER. YOU ARE CLEARED TO DEPART IP. REPORT DEPARTING IP, OVER. HAMMER 11, DEPARTING IP. HAMMER 11 THIS IS K12, I HAVE YOU IN SIGHT. TARGET IS AT YOUR 2 O'CLOCK, OVER. HAMMER 11, ROGER. HAMMER 11, LASER ON. THIS IS K12, LASER ON, OVER. HAMMER 11, I HAVE THE SPOT. THIS IS K12. YOU ARE CLEARED HOT, OVER. HAMMER 11, TERMINATE. HAMMER 11 THIS IS K12, END OF MISSION. T-62s DESTROYED, OVER.
FLIGHTLEADER (HAMMER 11) COMPANY FSO (K12) BATTERY (K28) K12 THIS IS HAMMER 11, NOW AT CP, OVER. THIS IS K12, REQUEST LINEUP, OVER HAMMER 11, MISSION NUMBER 1210027. I HAVE TWO A-7s, 6 MAVERICKS AND 20-MM ON EACH. ON STATION FOR 20 MINUTES. THIS IS K12, ROGER. DO YOU HAVE ATTACK INFORMATION? OVER. HAMMER 11, AFFIRMATIVE. THIS IS K12, ROGER, OUT. K28 THIS IS K12, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. GRID NK132968, OVER. MARKING ROUND WP AT MY COMMAND, REQUEST TIME OF FLIGHT, OVER. Message to observer: KILO, AA7000, OVER. THIS IS K28, READY, TIME OF FLIGHT 46 SECONDS, OVER. K12 THIS IS HAMMER 11, NOW APPROACHING IP. THIS IS K12, ROGER. YOU ARE CLEARED TO DEPART IP. REPORT DEPARTING IP, OVER. HAMMER 11, DEPARTING IP. K28 THIS IS K12, FIRE, OVER. THIS IS K28, SHOT, OVER. HAMMER 11 THIS IS K12, I HAVE YOU IN SIGHT. DO YOU SEE SMOKE AT YOU 10 O'CLOCK? OVER. HAMMER 11, AFFIRMATIVE. THIS IS K12, YOUR TARGET IS 200 METERS SOUTH OF THE SMOKE. A GROUP OF T-62 TANKS ON THE RIDGE. CAN YOU IDENTIFY? OVER. HAMMER 11, ROGER, I SEE THE TARGET. THIS IS K12. YOU ARE CLEARED HOT, OVER. HAMMER 11 THIS IS K12, END OF MISSION. T-62s DESTROYED, OVER. K28 THIS IS K12, END OF MISSION, OVER. THIS IS K28, END OF MISSION, OUT.
|NOTE: For simplicity, read-back transmissions between the company FSO and the battery are not shown.|
e. In a low-threat situation, the same basic procedures may be used. The aircraft may proceed from the IP to the target at higher altitudes; thus, they can see the target area from a greater distance. They may also be able to orbit the target area before their attack, allowing time for a good verbal description of the target by the company FSO. The timing of the marking round can be much less restricted (if the aircraft altitude is above the maximum altitude of the round), and the verbal description can be much more thorough. Therefore, the probability of the aircraft locating and successfully attacking the desired target could increase significantly.
8-4. MISSION AND EMPLOYMENT
The primary mission of an attack helicopter (AH) is to destroy armor and mechanized threat forces. Attack helicopters are used as maneuver forces in combined arms operations. This maximizes their weapon and aircraft system capabilities. They are ideally suited for situations in which rapid reaction time is important or terrain restricts ground forces.
8-5. FIRE SUPPORT ROLE
Infrequently, on the basis of the commander's risk versus payoff assessment, attack helicopters may be tasked to provide fire support when no other assets are available. The attack helicopter, when tailored for this mission, loses its primary antiarmor capability. It is tasked to trade precision antiarmor weapon systems for area suppression weapons.
Attack helicopters can fire aerial rockets indirectly at extended ranges; however, the fires are not accurate enough to warrant the large amount of ammunition needed for this type mission. The loiter time of the attack helicopter is a function of the armament and fuel load it is configured to carry. For example, a heavy antiarmor mission profile results in the aircraft being loaded with tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missiles (TOWs) or Hellfire missiles but carrying the minimum fuel needed to conduct the mission. This gives it a relatively short loiter time.
8-7. ATTACK AND SCOUT TEAMS
Attack and scout helicopters are always used as a team. Within each team, there is a team leader. He controls the actions of the team, coordinates the battle with ground forces, adjusts artillery fires, and directs tactical air units.
8-8. ARMY AND AIR FORCE COORDINATION
The joint air attack team (JAAT) is a combination of Army attack and scout helicopters and Air Force close air support aircraft. Normally, the team operates with ground maneuver forces, field artillery, mortars, and air defense weapon systems to attack high-priority targets. These systems complement and reinforce each other when used together. Fire support team members and fire support officers from company to brigade levels are involved in coordinating and supporting this joint effort. Target hand-over procedures are the method by which they help accomplish the mission of attack helicopters.
8-9. TARGET HAND OVER
a. If attack helicopters are operating in the company zone of action, the FIST or COLT can use its G/VLLD to designate targets for attack helicopters. This can be done in several different ways. When the attack helicopters are carrying TOWs, the FIST hands over the target to the aeroscout, and the scout maneuvers the attack helicopter into position to engage. Or, the FIST can hand over directly to an attack helicopter. If Hellfire is the weapon system to be used, other options are also available. Hellfire can be guided by the attack helicopter, the aeroscout, or the FIST. Thus, the FIST or COLT can lase for the attack helicopter with the aeroscout or the FIST coordinating. The target can be passed to the aeroscout by the FIST, and he can designate for the attack helicopter. Hellfire has a lock-on-after-launch local function. That means that if someone besides the attack helicopter is designating, the attack helicopter does not have to unmask to fire its missile.
b. To prevent the Hellfire missile from locking onto the designator instead of the target, the Angle T Eormed between the designator-target lime and the missile-target line should be less than 1,065 mils (60ø). Before engaging the target, the observer should relay his position to the helicopter so the pilot can position the aircraft properly for safety. To keep the missile from tracking laser backscatter energy, the designator should keep a clear, unobstructed line of sight to the target. Special care should be taken to avoid lasing through dust, trees, or other obstructions which could cause the Hellfire to impact near the designator. This is especially true in designating moving targets.
|This section implements STANAG 1034.|
a. On most occasions when naval gunfire is available, elements of an air and naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO) will be attached to the appropriate Army unit. Normally, at the maneuver company level, a firepower control team will be attached to control and coordinate naval gunfire. If an NGF spotter is not available, the FIST is responsible to call for and adjust naval gunfire. The procedures, except for a few differences, are the same as already outlined. It is essential for the company FSO to be aware of these differences if he wishes to accomplish the mission in a timely manner.
b. Table 8-1 shows types of Navy ships and characteristics of their armament.
Table 8-1. NAVAL SHIPS AND THEIR ARMAMENT
The spotter, if attached, conducts NGF missions over the NGF ground spot net with a high frequency (HF) radio. The lack of an HF radio may pose a problem if any observer other than a spotter is required to adjust naval gunfire. To solve this problem, the observer should contact the supporting arms liaison team (SALT) officer who is located in the battalion FSE. The SALT officer can talk to the ship over the NGF ground spot net, and the adjustment can be relayed through him.
8-12. FIRE UNIT STATUS
When a ship arrives in its assigned firing position (fire support station [FSS] or fire support area [FSA]) and it has completed its prefiring tasks, it will report ON STATION AND READY FOR CALL FOR FIRE. A fire unit status report may be sent. It includes pertinent information such as types and quantities of ammunition available for naval gunfire support. This information may be requested by the observer.
8-13. ELEMENTS OF THE CALL FOR FIRE
To perform the duty of providing naval gunfire, the observer must communicate effectively with the fire support ship. To do this with the least confusion and the greatest speed, the observer uses a standardized call for fire. The call for fire is transmitted to the ship in two transmissions, consisting of six elements, with a read-back break after each transmission. The sequence of these two transmissions is as follows:
8-14. SPOTTER (OBSERVER) IDENTIFICATION
This element tells the ship who is calling. The observer and the ship use call signs. Once given, call signs are normally omitted from subsequent transmissions in the course of the mission.
8-15. WARNING ORDER AND TARGET NUMBER
a. The warning order tells the ship that a call for fire is being transmitted. It clears the net and warns the ship that naval gunfire support is desired. For naval gunfire, the warning order consists of the words FIRE MISSION.
b. For the ship and the naval gunfire liaison officer (NGLO) who is monitoring the call for fire to keep track of each location being fired upon, each mission is assigned a target number. The observer gives the target number to the ship. The target number consists of two letters followed by four numbers. For targets of opportunity, the FIST assigns each fire mission a number in numerical sequence from the block of target numbers allocated by the battalion fire support element (battalion FSO), or the battalion FSO may assign the target number. In the case of planned targets, the observer uses the previously assigned target number from the fire plan. The assignment of target numbers to fire missions in the call for fire does not cause the targets to be recorded as targets. An example of the warning order and target number element in the call for fire is A1B THIS IS C2D, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AB2135, OVER.
8-16. TARGET LOCATION
This element gives the ship information needed to plot the target and determine firing data. Target location data are determined in the same manner as for artillery. Target location data are transmitted as follows:
8-17. TARGET DESCRIPTION
This element gives a brief description of the target. The observer considers the items below when formulating this element.
a. Type of Target. What the target is and what the target is doing (for example, troops digging in).
b. Size. Number of elements in the target or its physical dimensions (for example, 5 trucks or 400 x 200, attitude 0700).
c. Degree of Protection. Does the target have protection (in the open or dug in)?
8-18. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT
a. Danger Close. The term DANGER CLOSE is included in the call for fire when there are friendly troops or positions within a prescribed distance of the target. Depending on the caliber of the gun and the ammunition being fired, there are three different distances that are considered danger close for naval gunfire (Table 8-2).
Table 8-2. DANGER CLOSE DISTANCES FOR NAVAL GUNFIRE
DANGER CLOSE, SOUTH 350: SOUTH 350 indicates friendly position in relation to the target.
FIRST SALVO AT ADD 400: ADD 400 positions the offset at least 750 meters from the nearest friendly position (350 + 400 = 750).
(2) The creeping method of adjustment is always used in danger close missions. The observer makes corrections by moving each round toward the target in increments of 100 meters. The combined effect of each correction should not exceed 200 meters. If more than one gun is to fire for effect, the observer should check the mean point of impact of all guns to be used before entering fire for effect.
(3) In a danger close situation, the fires may be crept to within minimum safe distance of friendly positions. Recommended minimum safe distance for an adjusted salvo of a 5-inch gun is 200 meters when firing parallel to the front lines, or 350 meters when not firing parallel to the front line. The ship normally advises the observer when a predicted fall of shot approaches minimum safe distance.
b. Trajectory. Because of the high muzzle velocity and the flat trajectory of naval gunfire, intervening terrain may prevent engagement of targets in defilade. Also, a reduced charge may be required to prevent ripping of the illumination parachute or to increase accuracy at short ranges. The observer or the ship can raise the trajectory, thereby increasing the angle of fall, by announcing REDUCED CHARGE. If this subelement is omitted in the call for fire, the ship will fire full charge. Once a reduced charge has been initiated, it can be terminated by the command CANCEL REDUCED CHARGE.
c. Ammunition. Several types of ammunition are available to the observer. If the type of ammunition is not specified in the call for fire, shell HE with fuze quick will be fired during the adjustment and FFE phases. If a different type of ammunition or fuze action is required during either the adjustment or the FFE phase, the observer must specify the type desired. As much warning as possible should be provided to the ship when a mission requires a nonstandard projectile, such as WP. This allows time to ready the ammunition in the gun mount.
(2) Fuze. The observer must specify all fuzes except fuze quick; for example, FUZE DELAY. (When illumination is fired, the fuze is understood to be fuze time.)
d. Armament. When supported by a multicaliber ship (such as a battleship with 5-inch and 16-inch guns), the observer may specify if he desires main or secondary armament. Main (larger caliber) armament is understood if this element is omitted.
e. Number of Guns. The observer may specify the number of guns for effect. If not specified, it is understood to be the same number as in adjustment. One gun is considered standard and need not be specified. An example command is TWO GUNS.
f. Number of Salvos. This element is sent when entering fire for effect. The term salvo refers to the method of fire in which a weapon or a number of weapons are fired at a target. It indicates the number of rounds to be fired from each gun. For example, 1 GUN 5 SALVOS means 5 rounds are to be fired, while 2 GUNS 5 SALVOS means 10 rounds are to be fired. If the method of control is spotter (observer) adjust, this element is omitted until the observer is ready to enter fire for effect; or it can be included if the observer wants to adjust with multiple salvos. If omitted, the ship fires only one salvo. An example command is 2 SALVOS.
g. Special Instructions. Various special instructions the observer may use in attack of the target are discussed below.
(2) Sustained Fire. If there is a requirement for fire for effect to be spread over a specific period of time, the observer may specify SUSTAINED FIRE. The command includes the number of salvos and the period of time in which they are required to be fired; for example, 20 SALVOS, SUSTAINED FIRE, 5 MINUTES, FIRE FOR EFFECT.
(3) Time on Target. The observer may require the initial salvos in fire for effect to impact on the target at a specified time.
(4) Coordinated Illumination. The observer may inform the ship that the firing of illuminating and HE projectiles will be coordinated to illuminate the target and surrounding area only at the time required for spotting and adjusting the HE fires. He does this by announcing COORDINATED ILLUMINATION.
(5) Continuous Illumination. The observer may require constant light on a target. He may specify a period of time the illumination is to be effective. The ship determines the interval to fire the subsequent illumination salvos based on the burning time of the projectile. The observer commands CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION. This command should be used with discretion to avoid excessive expenditure of ammunition.
8-19. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL
This element of the call for fire indicates the observer's desire and ability to control the delivery of fires. Methods of control are announced by the observer by using the terms described below.
a. Spotter (Observer) Adjust. When the observer believes that an adjustment must be made, he adjusts the salvos until he is sure fire will take effect on the target. This method is understood to be standard if omitted from the call for fire. It may be used when the observer wishes to revert to adjustment anytime during the mission.
b. Ship Adjust. This method of control is used when the observer believes the ship has a better view of the target than he does. Since direct fire is faster and more accurate, this method is used whenever possible. After the observer positively identifies the target to the ship, he announces SHIP ADJUST. The ship then takes the target under fire. The observer may assist the ship by providing range spottings along the GT line, particularly when he is looking perpendicular to the GT line.
c. Fire for Effect. The observer should strive for fire for effect with the first round or as soon as possible in the adjustment phase. When determining whether to fire for effect on the first round, the observer must consider the target location and how accurately the ship has been firing its initial rounds on previous missions. He must also consider the dispersion pattern of naval gunfire. If the first salvo is believed to have effect on the target, the best results are normally achieved by surprise fire. When fire for effect is desired, the observer specifies the number of salvos (and guns if different from that used in adjustment) and announces FIRE FOR EFFECT; for example, 6 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT or 2 GUNS, 6 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT.
d. Cannot Observe. The command CANNOT OBSERVE is used when neither the observer nor the ship can see the target yet the target must be engaged. Normally, the location is received through intelligence sources. FIRE FOR EFFECT and the number of salvos are always transmitted with this method of control; for example, 2 GUNS, 4 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, CANNOT OBSERVE.
e. At My Command. The command AT MY COMMAND is used as a modifier to the methods of control. If the observer needs to control when the ship fires each round, he includes AT MY COMMAND in the method of control. When the ship is prepared to fire each round, it transmits READY OVER. The observer then commands FIRE when he is ready for the ship to fire the round. At my command remains in effect throughout the mission or until the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND. This method of control is often used by aerial observers. To initiate it, the observer announces FIRE FOR EFFECT, AT MY COMMAND.
8-20. PREFIRING REPORT
After the ship receives the call for fire and determines firing data, a report will be made to the observer before fire is begun. The observer reads back this transmission to the ship and commands BREAK...FIRE, OVER. Information the ship reports is discussed below.
a. Gun-Target Line. The ship reports its firing direction, using the same north reference and units used by the spotter. The ship notifies the observer of subsequent changes to the GT line of 200 mils (10ø) or more. If the direction used for adjustment is the GT line, the ship reports changes of 100 mils (5ø) or more.
b. Line of Fire. When the ship fires an illumination mission, wind drift may cause the flare parachute to miss the target. To indicate a different firing direction, the ship reports LINE OF FIRE for illumination missions; for example, LINE OF FIRE, 110 DEGREES TRUE. This direction is to the new illumination aiming point, not the GT line.
c. Summit. If the observer is airborne, the ship routinely reports the highest altitude above mean sea level the projectile will reach on its flight path to the target. Summit may also be requested by ground observers or the NGLO. Summit is reported in feet to air observers and in meters to ground agencies (observer or NGLO).
d. First Salvo at (Point of Aim). When the observer has reported a danger-close situation, the ship confirms the first salvo aiming point identified previously by the observer; for example, FIRST SALVO AT ADD 300.
e. Any Changes. If the ship must change any portion of the observer's fire request, it notifies him of the change. For instance, if the observer requests SHELL WP IN EFFECT and the ship has none remaining, the ship announces CANNOT COMPLY WITH WP, HE IN EFFECT.
f. Ready and Time of Flight. When the ship is prepared to fire the first salvo, it reports READY followed by the time of flight in seconds. The observer reads back the entire prefiring report and commands FIRE. If the method of control included at my command, the ship also reports READY before firing each round. The ship informs the observer when there is a time of flight change of more than 5 seconds. An example of a prefiring report follows.
SHIP OBSERVER TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION GUN-TARGET LINE 1680, READY 17, OVER. GUN-TARGET LINE 1680, READY 17, BREAK...FIRE, OVER. FIRE, OUT.
To avoid deception, the ship should initiate authentication procedures upon establishing initial communications with the observer.
8-22. REPORT UPON FIRING
The ship transmits the SHOT and SPLASH reports to the observer each time an adjustment salvo is fired and for the first salvo only in the FFE phase.
a. SHOT is transmitted at the moment the guns are fired.
b. SPLASH is transmitted 5 seconds before the round is expected to detonate. SPLASH is not reported during fire for effect when two or more ships are conducting a massed-fire mission. In illumination missions, it is reported for star shells before the beginning of the HE adjustment phase of coordinated illumination missions and thereafter for the HE round only; for example, SHOT...SPLASH, OUT.
8-23. CORRECTION OF ERRORS
Errors by the observer or by the ship are sometimes made in transmitting data. The procedures below should be used to correct the data.
a. Correction. If the observer realizes he has made an error in his transmission, he immediately transmits the word CORRECTION followed by the corrected data. If the correction affects other subelements, his correction includes a restatement of the entire data.
b. Wrong. If an error is made during a read back, the word WRONG followed by the correct data is transmitted at the end of the transmission. The word. WRONG is then read back, along with the corrected version.
8-24. EXAMPLES OF NAVAL GUNFIRE CALLS FOR FIRE
Shown below are examples of various NGF calls for fire.
EXAMPLE SPOTTER (OBSERVER) ADJUST MISSION, GRID
OBSERVER SHIP TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION E6R THIS IS N7R, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3001, OVER. N7R THIS IS E6R, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3001, OUT. GRID MB786543, ALTITUDE 05, DIRECTION 2680, 50 TROOPS IN THE OPEN, FUZE CVT IN EFFECT, OVER. GRID MB786543, ALTITUDE 05, DIRECTION 2680, 50 TROOPS IN THE OPEN, FUZE CVT IN EFFECT, OUT. GT LINE 0870, READY 13, OVER. GT LINE 0870, READY 13, BREAK...FIRE, OVER. FIRE, OUT. SPOTTER (OBSERVER) ADJUST MISSION, AMC, POLAR OBSERVER SHIP TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION E6R THIS IS N7R, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3002, OVER. N7R THIS IS E6R FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3002, OUT. DIRECTION 4880 MAGNETIC, DISTANCE 2900, UP 35, THREE TRUCKS REFUELING IN OPEN, SHELL WP IN EFFECT, AT MY COMMAND, OVER. DIRECTION 4880 MAGNETIC, DISTANCE 2900, UP 35, THREE TRUCKS REFUELING IN OPEN, SHELL WP IN EFFECT, AT MY COMMAND, OUT. GT LINE 0260 MAGNETIC, READY 17, OVER. GT LINE 0260 MAGNETIC, READY 17, BREAK...FIRE, OVER. FIRE, OUT. FIRE-FOR-EFFECT MISSION, SHIFT FROM A KNOWN POINT METHOD OBSERVER SHIP TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION E6R THIS IS N7R, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3003, OVER N7R THIS IS E6R, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF3003, OUT. FROM TARGET NUMBER AB3772, DIRECTION 3470, LEFT 280, ADD 500, SUPPLY DEPOT IN DEFILADE, RADIUS 200, REDUCE CHARGE, 2 GUNS 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. FROM TARGET NUMBER AB3772, DIRECTION 3470, LEFT 280, ADD 500, SUPPLY DEPOT IN DEFILADE, RADIUS 200, REDUCE CHARGE, 2 GUNS 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OUT. GT LINE 5340 READY 31, OVER. GT LINE 5340 READY 31, BREAK...FIRE, OVER. FIRE OUT.
8-25. ADJUSTMENT OF NAVAL GUNFIRE
The following paragraphs apply to adjustment procedures unique to naval gunfire. The characteristic flat trajectory and high muzzle velocity of naval gunfire make the NGF adjustment somewhat difficult, particularly on flat terrain. The observer must use sound observed firing procedures discussed previously, such as accurate target location. He also must take the actions discussed below.
a. Identify the Gun-Target Line. When notified of the GT line in the prefiring report, the observer must visualize its position in relation to the target and his own position. This provides the basis for the observer to identify round-to-round dispersion in adjustment.
b. Be Aware of the Dispersion Pattern of Naval Gunfire. The fall of shot of naval gunfire can be described as a narrow, elongated pattern as seen along the GT line. The size of the pattern varies with range. For example, at 2,100 meters, the 5-inch gun mount causes a round-to-round dispersion pattern which is about 150 meters long and 50 meters wide. Figure 8-3 shows the dispersion pattern of naval gunfire.
Figure 8-3. NGF DISPERSION PATTERN
c. Predict Each Fall of Shot Before Impact. While the ship determines firing data for the next round, the observer should visualize the fall of shot based on his corrections. He compares the actual impact of the round with the predicted fall of shot. Differences that occur along the GT line may indicate round-to-round dispersion.
d. Ignore Errors to the Fall of Shot Attributed to Round-to-Round Dispersion. If a round impacts contrary to its predicted fall of shot as a result of dispersion, the observer makes a correction from its predicted point of impact instead of its actual impact. This should result in the next fall of shot impacting as predicted. This avoids the observer getting a "ping-pong" effect in adjustment.
The observer visualizes the GT line. His first spotting is SHORT, 35 MILS RIGHT (OT factor = 2). He transmits a correction of LEFT 70, ADD 200. His predicted fall of shot is OVER, ON LINE. The second spotting is OVER, 25 MILS LEFT. (The apparent error is along the GT line.) The observer transmits a correction of DROP 100. The third spotting impacts as predicted (SHORT, ON LINE). The observer's final correction is ADD 50, 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT.
e. Correct From the Mean Point of Impact. When consecutive rounds impact differently from their predicted fall of shot, the observer should make a c correction from the average or mean point of impact of the rounds.
The first spotting is SHORT, 35 MILS RIGHT (OT factor = 2). The first correction is LEFT 70, ADD 200. The predicted fall of shot is OVER, ON LINE. The second spotting is OVER, 25 MILS LEFT. (The apparent error is along the GT line.) The spotter transmits a correction of DROP 100. The third spotting is SHORT, 30 MILS LEFT. The observer notes that two consecutive rounds have impacted left of their predicted point of impact. The final correction is RIGHT 50, ADD 50, 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT. The observer made his deviation correction from the MPI of the last 2 rounds (25 MILS LEFT and 30 MILS LEFT).
f. Use Multiple Rounds in Adjustment. At times, the observer may need to adjust with multiple rounds, firing multiple salvos from a single gun or using multiple guns in adjustment. This method requires the observer to adjust from the mean point of impact of all rounds fired. Normally, this method is used in firing on a large area target, in firing 16-inch projectiles, or in visualizing the GT line. The technique can also be used for observers having difficulties in range dispersion in adjustment.
g. Use Elevation or Height-of-Burst Adjustment of Impact Fires. On steep terrain, UP or DOWN corrections may be used to bring the fall of shot to the same elevation as the target. These corrections are reflected on the ground with reference to the GT line.
(2) Avoid mixing ADD or DROP with UP or DOWN corrections for impact fires. Both of these corrections involve an elevation change on the gun, and the results will be unpredictable. Deviation and range adjustments along the OT line usually equate to elevation changes on the gun when transformed to GT line corrections. Use UP or DOWN corrections to bring the impacts to the same altitude as the target; then switch to deviation and/or range corrections.
8-26. ADJUSTMENT OF AIRBURSTS
In time fires, special fuzes are used to achieve an airburst over the target. These fuzes include mechanical and electronic time fuzes which require a time setting before firing. Airbursts may also be delivered by proximity fuzes (VT and CVT) designed to explode at an optimal height of burst according to a radio-activated signal (20 meters for 5-inch, 7 meters for 16-inch CVT). Time fires using time or electronic time fuzes must be adjusted to ensure detonation at an optimal HOB (20 meters) in fire for effect. Proximity fuzes do not require adjustment.
a. Adjustment of Time Fires. The observer announces FUZE TIME IN EFFECT in the method of engagement element of his call for fire. He conducts adjustment with fuze quick in the same manner as discussed previously. He enters the time phase of the adjustment process when--
The transmission to enter the time phase of adjustment is FUZE TIME followed by a correction (or REPEAT); for example, FUZE TIME, RIGHT 30, ADD 50, OVER or FUZE TIME, REPEAT, OVER.
b. Height-of-Burst Corrections.
(2) Once an initial AIR spotting is achieved, the observer measures the spotting (to the nearest mil) and computes an HOB correction by multiplying the spotting by the OT factor. The HOB correction is made to the nearest 5 meters to correct the HOB to 20 meters. If a correct HOB can reasonably be expected, the observer enters fire for effect. If the AIR spotting is excessively high (60 meters or greater), the observer should observe another salvo before entering fire for effect. Excessively high bursts will normally be short on the GT line and out of the target area because the fuze functioned prematurely in the projectile trajectory.
(3) If a graze burst is obtained after an airburst, the correction is UP 20. Fire for effect is never begun when the last burst observed resulted in a spotting of GRAZE.
Battlefield illumination facilitates observation for both the observer and the combat unit and restrains the enemy's freedom of movement. Illuminating shells can be used--
The two methods of employing illumination are continuous and coordinated.
a. Continuous Illumination. In some situations, an observer may need continuous light on the target area. This method of illumination can be used in surveillance and will be used automatically during the FFE phase of coordinated illumination missions. When firing continuous illumination, the ship fires one round about every 15 seconds. Thus, three fired rounds will result in one round bursting, one flare at midpoint of descent, and one flare near burnout. This technique should be used with discretion to avoid wasting the limited number of star shells (illuminating projectiles) available in the ship's magazine.
b. Coordinated Illumination. This is the common technique used by NGF observers to adjust fire during darkness. The observer transmits a call for fire for a suspected target the location of which is not sufficiently accurate to fire for effect. The ship fires an illuminating round over the initial target location. The observer then moves the illumination by subsequent adjustments. When the flare is adjusted to provide good target location, the observer informs the ship of the moment of best illumination by transmitting the command STANDBY, MARK. The ship then computes gun data to fire the initial round for HE adjustment to impact directly under the point of illumination burst at the moment of best illumination. There will be a single salvo of HE fire for each adjustment. When fire for effect begins, the ship will fire enough continuous illumination to ensure the observer can see the target.
c. Illumination Call for Fire. The observer uses the standard call for fire format. He announces either CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION or COORDINATED ILLUMINATION in the special instructions subelement of the call for fire. The number of guns is omitted, since one gun is standard. The ammunition (illuminating projectile and fuze) is also omitted. To prevent ripped chutes, the mission may require reduced charge, particularly in firing at ranges of less than 7,000 meters. An example of a coordinated illumination call for fire is shown below.
AIB THIS IS C2D, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER
d. Prefiring Report. To differentiate between the illumination trajectory and that to be used for subsequent HE, the ship announces LINE OF FIRE followed by READY and TIME OF FLIGHT for the illuminating projectile. The observer must consider the path of the empty canister and its probable impact point along the line of fire. The observer reads back the prefiring report and commands FIRE.
e. Illumination Adjustment Procedures. Spottings are made to determine the location of the flare at the midpoint of its descent and the height of burnout of the flare. The flare is normally corrected to position it over (behind) the target along the OT line to achieve a silhouette of the target. If the target is on a slope, the flare normally is positioned short of the target to allow the light to shine back onto the target. The direction and speed of the wind also affect the positioning of the flare.
(2) Height of Burnout. The height of burnout should be between 0 (as it touches the ground) and 50 meters above the ground. Corrections are given in multiples of 50 meters with a minimum correction of 50 meters.
(b) If the flare burnout is in the air, the observer must determine the height of burnout. This can be done by using binoculars (measure mils x OT factor). A second technique is to count the number of seconds that it takes the flickering ember from the flare to reach the ground and then multiply by the rate of descent. After rounding down to the nearest 50 meters, a correction is given to place the height of burnout between 0 and 50 meters. For example, a flare burns out in the air. The observer counts 7 seconds from the burnout until the ember touches the ground. The correction is DOWN 50 (7 seconds x 10 meters per second = 70 meters [approximately 50 meters]).
f. Continuous Illumination Procedures. The observer adjusts the illumination as discussed above. Once the target has been properly lit, the observer can begin the FFE phase of the mission. In this phase, the ship fires illuminating projectiles at such a rate of fire that they keep the target area continuously lit. The observer may increase or decrease the rate of fire by ordering an interval of sustained fire. Examples of entering the FFE phase are shown below.
10 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. (The ship determines the rate of fire.)
SUSTAINED FIRE, 5 MINUTES, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
10 SALVOS, INTERVAL 10, FIRE FOR OVER.
(2) The observer may acquire a target during a continuous illumination mission and want to change to coordinated illumination. He should transmit the command COORDINATED ILLUMINATION. This command should be followed by desired illumination corrections, target description, method of engagement, and method of control changes; for example, COORDINATED ILLUMINATION, LEFT 200, TROOPS IN THE OPEN, FUZE CVT IN EFFECT, OVER. The ship will fire one illuminating projectile and be prepared to mark. Coordinated illumination procedures are described below.
g. Coordinated Illumination Procedures. The observer's request for coordinated illumination may result from acquiring a target during a continuous illumination mission, or it may be a part of the observer's method of engagement in the initial call for fire. This request alerts the ship that the observer will adjust the illumination and that he will subsequently request and adjust HE projectiles timed to impact at the moment of best illumination. During the illumination adjustment phase of the mission, the ship will time every illuminating projectile fired. It will be prepared to mark when commanded by the spotter.
(2) Marking Procedure. Once the illuminating flare has been positioned to yield the optimum light on the target, the observer transmits STANDBY...MARK, OVER. The MARK informs the ship of the optimum illumination. The ship responds MARK, OUT. The ship then times the firing of each HE projectile to impact at the optimum, or marked, time.
(3) High-Explosive Adjustment. Immediately after receiving the read back of MARK, OUT, the observer begins the HE adjustment phase. He transmits any subsequent corrections to improve the accuracy of the initial HE salvo. If no HE correction is sent, the ship fires the initial HE projectile at the point of flare deployment. That point may be positioned off the target location (for silhouette or wind purposes). Example corrections are HE LEFT 200, DROP 200, OVER and HE REPEAT, OVER.
(b) The ship transmits SHOT for the illuminating projectile and SPLASH, OUT for the HE.
(c) The observer must preface each command with the type of projectile to which the correction is to be applied. Examples are ILLUM ADD 200, HE LEFT 200, OVER and HE ADD 50, 10 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
(4) Mark Modification. During the mission, the observer may want to change the timing between the illuminating and HE projectiles. To modify this interval, the observer uses the term ADVANCE or RETARD.
(b) Retard. If the observer wants the HE to impact later, he commands HE RETARD (so many) (seconds are understood); for example, HE RETARD 03, OVER.
(5) Fire for Effect. During the fire-for-effect phase, the ship automatically fires limited continuous illumination. This ensures that the observer has enough illumination for surveillance. The ship fires the last illuminating projectile immediately after the last impact round in FFE unless the observer commands CEASE ILLUMINATION sooner.
h. Illuminating Projectile Malfunctions. Two types of malfunctions are unique to illuminating rounds. Special procedures for ships and observers to compensate for these malfunctions are discussed below.
(2) Dark Star. A dark star is an illuminating round that fails to deploy at all or fails to ignite. Such malfunctions are due to either faulty ammunition or improper fuze settings. When a dark star occurs, report DARK STAR, REPEAT, OVER.. The ship should immediately check its time fuze settings and note the time fuze lot being used. If further dark stars occur, there is probably an error in the time fuze lot.
8-28. FRESH TARGET SHIFT
Anytime during a mission, before transmitting END OF MISSION, an observer may want to shift fire to a higher priority target. To do this, he uses the fresh target shift technique. The advantage of this technique is that the ship can shift to the fresh target more quickly than if another call for fire with new target location data were introduced into the gunfire control computer. The fresh target shift lets the observer temporarily suspend the adjustment of fire for the original target, bring fire onto a higher priority target, and then resume fire on the original target if desired. Procedures are discussed below.
a. Call for Fire. The observer sends an abbreviated call for fire, applying corrections from the impact of the last salvo to the fresh target. If started before the impact of the first salvo, corrections are made from the target location data sent in the call for fire. The abbreviated call for fire is discussed below.
(2) Warning order and target number are transmitted as FRESH TARGET, TARGET NUMBER (next succeeding target number). There is no break in transmission.
(3) Target location is expressed as deviation, range, and/or altitude correction from the last salvo fired (at the original target) to the fresh target. The shift is based on the original OT direction. The direction to the fresh target is not transmitted until after the first salvo of the fresh target shift has been fired. Then it is sent only if it differs from the original direction by more than 100 mils or 5ø.
(4) Target description must always be included.
(5) Method of engagement is omitted unless a change from the initial call for fire is required. Since the essence of the fresh target shift is timeliness, changes that may cause a delay, such as changes in ammunition, should be avoided. The observer may consider using a less preferred shell-fuze combination to retain a timely response.
(6) Method of control is omitted unless a change from the initial call for fire is desired. If the observer was in the FFE phase on the original target, that phase will continue unless the observer announces, SPOTTER (OBSERVER) ADJUST, OVER.
b. Adjust Fire. Once the first salvo impacts for the fresh target shift, the observer transmits a new OT direction (if required) and conducts adjustment onto the fresh target.
c. Complete Firing. The observer continues adjustment until he has achieved the desired effects on the fresh target. If he wants to resume firing on the original target, he again uses the fresh target shift technique to return to the original target. The target is referred to by its original target number.
d. Record as Target. If the observer wants the ship to record a target for future firing, he must transmit RECORD AS TARGET, TARGET NUMBER (so-and-so) after fire for effect on that target is completed but before sending END OF MISSION.
e. End Mission. When he is satisfied with the effects on each of the targets (fresh and original targets), the mission is terminated in target number sequence. Each target must be referred to by target number in reporting the damage assessment. For example, END OF MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AB4007 (original target), 3 TRUCKS DESTROYED, TARGET NUMBER AB4008 (fresh target), SAGGER WEAPON SILENCED, OVER.
8-29. SIMULTANEOUS ENGAGEMENT OF TWO TARGETS
The procedures for the simultaneous engagement of two targets differ from those of the new target shift in that the target location is not sent by using the shift from the last salvo. If the ship can conduct multiple missions (MK-86 or two separate gunfire control systems [EB]), the observer can adjust fire onto two targets simultaneously.
a. The call for fire for the second target in simultaneous engagement is the standard six-element call for fire listed in paragraph 8-13.
b. The observer must preface each correction with the target number to which it is to be applied.
c. The ship will not transmit SPLASH in order to provide more time for the observer to transmit corrections.
8-30. FIRING ON A RECORDED TARGET
If fires are desired on a previously recorded target or a planned target, the observer sends an abbreviated call for fire as discussed below.
a. Observer identification is required.
b. Warning order and target number consist of the word FIRE followed by the target number; for example, FIRE TARGET NUMBER (so-and-so). There is no break in transmission.
c. Target location is omitted. It is already known by the ship.
d. Target description is omitted unless changed from the recorded description.
e. Method of control is transmitted as required. If firing a recorded target from the same ship in the same firing track as when the data were recorded, a first-salvo FE may be feasible.
8-31. 16-INCH NAVAL GUNFIRE MISSIONS
Adjusting fire from the 16-inch guns of a battleship is somewhat different than adjusting that from the 5-inch guns.
a. Characteristics. The 16-inch gun produces a significantly larger dispersion pattern than does the 5-inch. The pattern is about 150 meters (or greater) wide and 500 meters (or greater) long. The pattern depends on the terrain, target range, and number of guns in effect. The observer should expect 2 to 5 minutes between transmitting a correction and shot of the next salvo.
b. Call for Fire. The standard call for fire is used. The armament and number of guns must be considered.
(2) Number of Guns. Ship operating procedures may differ in the number of mounts and/or turrets to be used in adjustment and fire for effect. Coordination with the battleship is encouraged on this subject.
c. Corrections. Because of the rather large dispersion pattern and the slow response time for each shot, observers should use bold corrections to hit the target as rapidly as possible. Bracketing is not feasible.
d. Erratic Rounds. The observer may want to use the MPI adjustment technique. On occasion, the dispersion pattern will contain an erratic round. When determining the MPI, the observer should ignore erratic rounds and determine the MPI from those impacts which form a reasonable group.
8-32. DESTRUCTIVE FIRE
Destructive fire missions by NGF ships involve deliberate, accurate gunfire normally using a single gun or turret against each target. This can be expensive in ammunition and take a considerable amount of time to execute. During the mission, the gun or turret and ammunition lot are not changed. The ship should be positioned to allow for the best conditions and orientation with respect to the GT line and the terrain in the target area. The GT range should be as short as possible in order to reduce the dispersion zone.
a. Adjustment. Ship adjustment should be used if possible. If the observer conducts the adjustment, he does so in the normal manner described previously until the MPI is at the split of the 100-meter range bracket.
b. Fire for Effect. Groups of rounds, usually five for a single gun, are fired and the averages for deviation and range spottings are noted. A correction based on the MPI of all the rounds is then sent. Five rounds are fired again. The correction is made as accurately as possible; for example, RIGHT 10, DROP 25, REPEAT, OVER or LEFT 5, REPEAT, OVER.
8-33. MASSED FIRE
a. Two or more ships may be required to engage large or important targets simultaneously. If they have not already been given a direct support mission, gunfire request procedures must be started.
b. A collective call sign is used. All orders from the observer are read back by the senior ship. The other ships acknowledge the transmissions. The first ship to report READY is adjusted onto the target in the normal manner. The other ships are individually adjusted as they report READY. Usually, one or two bold corrections are used to bring the MPI into the required target area. To facilitate observer control, AT MY COMMAND may be used. At the completion of adjustment, the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND, ALL GUNS (required number) SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
8-34. SPECIAL NAVAL GUNFIRE COMMANDS AND REPORTS
a. The commands below are given for safety reasons.
(2) CANCEL CHECK FIRING. The originator of check firing must announce CANCEL CHECK FIRING for the fire mission to continue.
b. The commands below would be given by the observer.
(2) TREND. The observer may notice the rounds drifting away from the target. Then this report, along with an indication of direction and drift in meters, is sent to the ship. This facilitates the identification of the gunnery problem by the ship. An example command is TREND, SOUTHWEST, 100 PER SALVO.
(3) STRADDLE. A multigun salvo may bracket a target. Then the observer announces STRADDLE, followed by a correction, to place the MPI on the target. The term is normally used during a ship-adjust or massed-fire mission.
(4) CHECK SOLUTION. This command is transmitted if the observer suspects an error in the gunnery solution for a salvo. Before sending CHECK SOLUTION, the observer should check his target location data, particularly direction if the error is in a subsequent salvo. Another common cause for errors in adjustment is a change in the OT factor resulting from a target location error. The ship will respond with either SOLUTION CHECKS or NEGLECT.
c. The commands below would come from the ship.
(2) DELAY. This command is followed by an estimate of time in minutes. It means that the ship is not ready to fire until the given time has elapsed--usually a short duration. When the ship is prepared to fire, it reports READY, OVER.
(3) WILL NOT FIRE. This command is followed by an explanation. It means that the ship will not continue the mission for the stated reason. Normally, the reason is a gun mount malfunction (mount casualty), a higher priority mission, or a circumstance such as counterbattery fire.