*FM 6-30

HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 16 July 1991

FM 6-30

TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR OBSERVED FIRE


Table of Contents

  1. PREFACE

  2. CHAPTER 1 FIELD ARTILLERY EFFECTIVENESS

    1. 1-1. FIELD ARTILLERY TEAM
    2. 1-2. FIRE SUPPORT EFFECTIVENESS
    3. 1-3. CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS
    4. 1-4. MANEUVER COMMANDER

  3. CHAPTER 2 DUTIES OF THE FIRE SUPPORT TEAM AND THE OBSERVER

    1. 2-1. FIRE SUPPORT TEAM
    2. 2-2. DUTIES OF FIRE SUPPORT TEAM PERSONNEL
    3. 2-3. FORWARD OBSERVER CONTROL
    4. 2-4. FIRE SUPPORT TEAM VEHICLE (M981) EMPLOYMENT OPTIONS
    5. 2-5. OBSERVATION POST SELECTION
    6. 2-6. FIRE SUPPORT TEAM VEHICLE (M981) POSITIONING
    7. 2-7. COMMUNICATIONS

  4. CHAPTER 3 TARGET LOCATION

      Section I REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATING TARGETS

    1. 3-1. TERRAIN-MAP ASSOCIATION
    2. 3-2. TARGET LOCATION METHODS
    3. 3-3. DIRECTION
    4. 3-4. DISTANCE
    5. 3-5. TERRAIN SKETCH

      Section II AIDS TO TARGET LOCATION

    1. 3-6. OBSERVED FIRE FAN
    2. 3-7. HAND MEASUREMENT OF ANGULAR DEVIATION

  5. CHAPTER 4 CALL FOR FIRE

      Section I ELEMENTS OF THE CALL FOR FIRE

    1. 4-1. DESCRIPTION
    2. 4-2. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION
    3. 4-3. WARNING ORDER
    4. 4-4. TARGET LOCATION
    5. 4-5. TARGET DESCRIPTION
    6. 4-6. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT
    7. 4-7. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL
    8. 4-8. CORRECTIONS OF ERRORS
    9. 4-9. CALLS FOR FIRE FROM HEADQUARTERS HIGHER THAN BATTALION
    10. 4-10. MESSAGE TO OBSERVER
    11. 4-11. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    12. 4-12. AUTHENTICATION
    13. 4-13. SAMPLE MISSIONS

      Section II SHELL-FUZE COMBINATIONS

    1. 4-14. DESIRED EFFECTS
    2. 4-15. SHELL HE AND FUZES
    3. 4-16. SHELL WHITE PHOSPHORUS
    4. 4-17. SHELL SMOKE
    5. 4-18. SHELL ILLUMINATING
    6. 4-19. SHELL FASCAM
    7. 4-20. SHELL COPPERHEAD
    8. 4-21. SHELLS ICM AND DPICM

  6. CHAPTER 5 ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE

      Section I SUBSEQUENT CORRECTIONS

    1. 5-1. PURPOSE OF ADJUSTMENT
    2. 5-2. ADJUSTING POINT
    3. 5-3. SPOTTINGS
    4. 5-4. TYPES OF CORRECTIONS
    5. 5-5. SEQUENCE OF SUBSEQUENT CORRECTIONS

      Section II AREA FIRE (ADJUSTMENT AND FIRE FOR EFFECT)

    1. 5-6. ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES
    2. 5-7. FIRE FOR EFFECT
    3. 5-8. REFINEMENT AND SURVEILLANCE

      Section III PRECISION FIRE

    1. 5-9. TYPES OF PRECISION MISSIONS
    2. 5-10. PRECISION REGISTRATION MISSION
    3. 5-11. DESTRUCTION MISSION

      Section IV MOVING TARGETS

    1. 5-12. ENGAGEMENT
    2. 5-13. TARGET OF OPPORTUNITY
    3. 5-14. PLANNED TARGET

  7. CHAPTER 6 SPECIAL MUNITIONS

      Section I IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS AND DUAL-PURPOSE IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS

    1. 6-1. CHARACTERISTICS OF ICM AND DPICM
    2. 6-2. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT
    3. 6-3. SAMPLE ICM MISSIONS
    4. 6-4. IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS CONSIDERATIONS

      Section II FIELD ARTILLERY DELIVERED FASCAM

    1. 6-5. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCAM
    2. 6-6. RAAMS PROJECTILES M718 AND M741
    3. 6-7. ADAM PROJECTILES M692 AND M731
    4. 6-8. TYPES OF MINEFIELDS
    5. 6-9. SELECTION OF MINES
    6. 6-10. SELECTION OF MINE DENSITY
    7. 6-11. SELECTION OF SELF-DESTRUCT TIME
    8. 6-12. TARGET LOCATION
    9. 6-13. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT
    10. 6-14. SAMPLE FASCAM MISSIONS

      Section III ILLUMINATION

    1. 6-15. CHARACTERISTICS OF ILLUMINATION
    2. 6-16. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
    3. 6-17. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT OF ILLUMINATION
    4. 6-19. SAMPLE ILLUMINATION MISSIONS

      Section IV SMOKE

    1. 6-20. CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKE
    2. 6-21. SMOKE DELIVERY TECHNIQUES
    3. 6-22. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
    4. 6-23. IMMEDIATE SMOKE
    5. 6-24. QUICK SMOKE
    6. 6-25. SAMPLE SMOKE MISSIONS
    7. 6-26. MORTAR PROCEDURES

      Section V COPPERHEAD

    1. 6-27. CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPERHEAD
    2. 6-28. EMPLOYMENT
    3. 6-29. ENGAGEMENT
    4. 6-30. TARGETS OF OPPORTUNITY
    5. 6-31. PLANNED TARGETS
    6. 6-32. COPPERHEAD CALL FOR FIRE

  8. CHAPTER 7 SPECIAL OBSERVER MISSIONS

    1. 7-1. AERIAL FIRE SUPPORT OBSERVER
    2. 7-2. HIGH-ANGLE FIRE
    3. 7-3. FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRES
    4. 7-4. MULTIPLE MISSIONS
    5. 7-5. OBSERVING HIGH-BURST OR MEAN-POINT-OF-IMPACT REGISTRATIONS
    6. 7-6. AUXILIARY ADJUSTING POINT
    7. 7-7. OBSERVER NOT ORIENTED
    8. 7-8. IRREGULARLY SHAPED TARGETS
    9. 7-9. ADJUSTMENT BY SOUND
    10. 7-10. EMERGENCY OBSERVER PROCEDURES

  9. CHAPTER 8 ADJUSTMENT OF OTHER FIRE SUPPORT MEANS

      Section I CLOSE AIR SUPPORT

    1. 8-1. TYPES OF REQUESTS
    2. 8-2. EMPLOYMENT
    3. 8-3. MISSION CONTROL

      Section II ATTACK HELICOPTERS

    1. 8-4. MISSION AND EMPLOYMENT
    2. 8-5. FIRE SUPPORT ROLE
    3. 8-6. CAPABILITIES
    4. 8-7. ATTACK AND SCOUT TEAMS
    5. 8-8. ARMY AND AIR FORCE COORDINATION
    6. 8-9. TARGET HAND OVER

      Section III NAVAL GUNFIRE

    1. 8-10. INTRODUCTION
    2. 8-11. COMMUNICATIONS
    3. 8-12. FIRE UNIT STATUS
    4. 8-13. ELEMENTS OF THE CALL FOR FIRE
    5. 8-14. SPOTTER (OBSERVER) IDENTIFICATION
    6. 8-15. WARNING ORDER AND TARGET NUMBER
    7. 8-16. TARGET LOCATION
    8. 8-17. TARGET DESCRIPTION
    9. 8-18. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT
    10. 8-19. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL
    11. 8-20. PREFIRING REPORT
    12. 8-21. AUTHENTICATION
    13. 8-22. REPORT UPON FIRING
    14. 8-23. CORRECTION OF ERRORS
    15. 8-24. EXAMPLES OF NAVAL GUNFIRE CALLS FOR FIRE
    16. 8-25. ADJUSTMENT OF NAVAL GUNFIRE
    17. 8-26. ADJUSTMENT OF AIRBURSTS
    18. 8-27. ILLUMINATION
    19. 8-28. FRESH TARGET SHIFT
    20. 8-29. SIMULTANEOUS ENGAGEMENT OF TWO TARGETS
    21. 8-30. FIRING ON A RECORDED TARGET
    22. 8-31. 16-INCH NAVAL GUNFIRE MISSIONS
    23. 8-32. DESTRUCTIVE FIRE
    24. 8-33. MASSED FIRE
    25. 8-34. SPECIAL NAVAL GUNFIRE COMMANDS AND REPORTS

  10. APPENDIX A LASER RANGE FINDERS AND DESIGNATORS AND WEAPON SYSTEMS

    1. A-1. INTRODUCTION
    2. A-2. GROUND/VEHICULAR LASER LOCATOR DESIGNATOR
    3. A-3. SELF-LOCATION
    4. A-4. SECOND G/VLLD-EQUIPPED OBSERVER ASSISTANCE
    5. A-5. OBSERVER ACTIONS AFTER BEING LOCATED
    6. A-6. ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE
    7. A-7. AUXILIARY ADJUSTING POINT
    8. A-8. OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT
    9. A-9. REGISTRATION
    10. A-10. TARGET RANGING AND DESIGINATING WITH THE NIGHT SIGHT
    11. A-11. NIGHT-SIGHTTRAINING
    12. A-12. AN/GVS-5 LASER RANGE FINDER
    13. A-13. HELLFIRE MISSILE
    14. A-14. AH-64 TARGET ACQUISITION AND DESIGNATION SIGHT
    15. A-15. OH-58D MAST-MOUNTED SIGHT
    16. A-16. LASER TARGET DESIGNATOR
    17. A-17. MODULAR UNIVERSAL LASER EQUIPMENT
    18. A-18. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE LASER SYSTEMS
    19. A-19. MARINE CORPS SYSTEM
    20. A-20. LASER SAFETY DURING TRAINING
    21. A-21. LASER SAFETY GOGGLES
    22. A-22. G/VLLD EVALUATOR
    23. A-23. ADDITIONAL LASER HAZARD INFORMATION
    24. A-24. G/VLLD SAFETY FAN AND LASER RANGE SAFETY CARD

  11. APPENDIX B DIGITAL MESSAGE DEVICES

      Section I DIGITAL MESSAGE DEVICE AN/PSG-2A

    1. B-1. OPERATION OF THE DIGITAL MESSAGE DEVICE
    2. B-2. PREPARATION FOR USE
    3. B-3. DMD MESSAGE FORMATS
    4. B-4. MESSAGE COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE, AND FLOW
    5. B-5. AUTHENTICATION
    6. B-6. MODE MENU
    7. B-7. PROCEDURE FOR PURGING THE MEMORY
    8. B-8. PROCEDURE FOR MAKING INITIAL STATUS SELECTIONS
    9. B-9. PROCEDURE FOR STORING THE AUTHENTICATION CODE LIST AND OPERATOR'S KEY
    10. B-10. MESSAGE COMPOSITION AND TRANSMISSION

      Section II FORWARD ENTRY DEVICE

    1. B-11. OPERATION OF FORWARD ENTRY DEVICE CP-1995/U
    2. B-12. FORWARD ENTRY DEVICE MESSAGE FORMATS
    3. B-13. MESSAGE TRANSFER MODES
    4. B-14. PREPARATION FOR USE
    5. B-15. POWER OR COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE
    6. B-16. SAVE OR PURGE DATA AND POWER DOWN
    7. B-17. UP-LOAD AND DOWN-LOAD THE CURRENT FORWARD ENTRY DEVICE SOFTWARE
    8. B-18. MESSAGE PROCESSING PROCEDURES
    9. B-19. FIRE MISSION PROCESSING PROCEDURES
    10. B-20. CHECK FIRE AND CANCEL CHECK FIRE PROCEDURES

      Section III FIST DIGITAL MESSAGE DEVICE

    1. B-21. OPERATION OF THE FIST DMD (AN/PSG-5)
    2. B-22. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

      Section IV MORTAR BALLISTIC COMPUTER M23

    1. B-23. DESCRIPTION
    2. B-24. CAPABILITIES
    3. B-25. MEMORY STORAGE
    4. B-26. DMD SUPPORTED MISSION PROCESSING

      Section V SPECIAL PURPOSE POWER SOURCES

    1. B-27. VEHICLES
    2. B-28. INTERNAL BATTERIES
    3. B-29. EXTERNAL BATTERIES
    4. B-30. SPECIAL HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES

      Section VI MNEMONICS

    1. B-31. DMD, FIST DMD, AND FED MNEMONICS
    2. B-32. TARGET EQUIVALENTS

  12. APPENDIX C TRAINING DEVICES

    1. C-1. PURPOSE
    2. C-2. MATCHBOX PROBLEM
    3. C-3. 14.5-MM FIELD ARTILLERY TRAINER M31
    4. C-4. TRAINING SET, FIRE OBSERVATION
    5. C-5. TSFO-G/VLLD SIMULATION ENHANCEMENT
    6. C-6. LASER TRAINING KIT
    7. C-7. HELLFIRE GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEM
    8. C-8. COMBINED ARMS TEAM INTEGRATED EVALUATION SYSTEM
    9. C-9. OBSERVER TRAINING FOR NONARTILLERY PERSONNEL

  13. APPENDIX D FIRE SUPPORT TEAM VEHICLE

    1. D-1. INTRODUCTION
    2. D-2. DESCRIPTION
    3. D-3. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
    4. D-4. FISTV OPERATIONS STATIONS
    5. D-5. OBSERVED FIRE PROCEDURES
    6. D-6. RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF THE FIST

  14. APPENDIX E TARGET ANALYSIS AND MUNITIONS EFFECTS

    1. E-1. OBSERVER RESPONSIBILITIES
    2. E-2. TARGET DESCRIPTION
    3. E-3. MOST SUITABLE AMMUNITION
    4. E-4. METHOD OF ATTACK

  15. GLOSSARY

  16. REFERENCES

  17. AUTHORIZATION LETTER