When the regiment is placed temporarily under the command and control of a division, the support relationship with the COSCOM should be maintained. The regiment communicates with COSCOM using the corps area system. The corps area system is composed of area signal centers interconnected by trunk circuits. The corps signal brigade installs and operates these centers. The area system is the primary means of transmission to corps and subordinate CSS elements.
The regiment is logistically self-contained. Because the regiment has an organic support squadron, it does not require augmentation to accomplish its normal missions. For certain missions, the regiment may receive augmentation of combat and combat support units by corps or by divisions within the corps (i.e., offensive and defensive covering force missions). Augmentation may include an artillery brigade, an attack aviation battalion, an armored/mechanized task force, an engineer battalion or additional combat support units. This augmentation will require COSCOM to provide backup direct support teams to the regiment. This reinforcement of CSS elements is critical to the success of the operation and must be carefully coordinated between the RS1, the RS4, the regimental support squadron commander and staff, and the COSCOM. The corps aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM) battalion normally provides the regiment with a maintenance support team for AVIM, backup aviation unit maintenance (AVUM), repair parts, and fire control support.
The length of the regiment's lines of communications and the rapidity with which it transitions to new missions will stress the support channel from COSCOM. Although the regiment is a "nondivision" unit, it will often require support similar to a division in type and quantity. The distance from the regiment, operating in front of a corps, to the COSCOM is significantly farther than other corps units. Support should be tailored to overcome the difficulties inherent in operating over these distances. Normal logistics planning tables and factors should be adjusted accordingly.
>The regimental support squadron is organized similarly to the support battalions of separate brigades. While the support squadron has the same companies as these support battalions, the troops in the support squadron are significantly different from the companies in the support battalions. This reflects the regiment's unique CSS requirements.
The regimental support squadron forms the nucleus for the regiment's CSS organization.
REGIMENTAL SUPPORT AREA
The regimental support area is the logistical hub of the armored cavalry regiment. The regimental support squadron is located in the support area, along with attached and subordinate CSS units. The regimental S3 determines the general location of the support area in consultation with the regimental S4 and support squadron commander. The S3 sites the support area to ensure adequate logistical support of the operation. The support squadron commander, with the assistance of his staff, determines the exact location for the units in the support area. He also orders the movement of support squadron elements to new locations.
The support area may be located in the security area, in the regimental rear area, in a brigade rear area, or in a division rear, based on METT-T. In any case, the support area should be located approximately 25 kilometers behind the FLOT, beyond the range of threat cannon artillery. A good location should include the following characteristics:
The regimental support area is made up of a combination of small logistical and unit bases. The support area may not be one large contiguous area; but rather several smaller areas interspersed across the rear area. It normally consists of the regimental rear command post; regimental support squadron; COSCOM augmentation teams; squadron field trains; and field trains of the engineer company, chemical company, and air defense battery. It may include the unit trains and assembly areas of the regimental aviation squadron. Figures 10-6 and 10-7 depict possible organizations of the regimental support area.
Figure 10-6. Consolidated regimental support area.
The lifelines that connect the regimental support area and field trains of supported units are the squadron main supply routes. Normally, one main supply route and an alternate are designated for each squadron, including the aviation squadron. The regimental S4, in coordination with the S3, selects these routes based on the tactical plan. The S4 also coordinates with affected units when these routes run through division sectors or zones.
The regimental support area is connected to COSCOM by a combination of supply routes for ground, air, rail, or water transportation units.
Figure 10-7. Dispersed regimental support area.
The regimental support squadron is normally organized as a regimental unit located in the regimental support area. In some situations, however, it may be necessary to echelon the regimental trains. This may be done on fast-moving offensive missions, or missions requiring the regiment to operate across a wide frontage. The regimental trains may be echeloned forward or laterally. Support detachments are formed by the regimental support squadron commander who moves and locates them as necessary. Figure 10-8 illustrates the support squadron employing support detachments.
Figure 10-8. Regimental support squadron support detachment.
Individual units in the regimental support area provide their own local security. The regimental support squadron commander coordinates local security of all units in the support area. Although the air defense units protecting the support squadron normally are not under the support squadron commander's control, he should coordinate and recommend air defense priorities. He should also coordinate rear area operations with the brigade(s) that is collocated with him.
REGIMENTAL SUPPORT SQUADRON COMMANDER AND REGIMENTAL STAFF RELATIONSHIP
The regimental support squadron commander is the logistics commander in the armored cavalry regiment. He controls and synchronizes CSS assets to support the regiment's plan. He commands subordinate units in the support squadron. He is responsible for executing the regiment's administrative/logistics plan.
The regimental XO is responsible for planning and integrating CSS into the plan. The XO normally delegates responsibility for planning to the regimental S4. This allows the XO to concentrate on operating the TOC as second in command.
The regimental S1 and the S4 are planners; the regimental support squadron commander is the executor. They coordinate with each other continuously on matters of common interest.
The S1 and the S4 prepare estimates to establish personnel and logistical requirements to support the tactical plan. They also prepare the service support portions of regimental orders. They must consult with the support squadron commander and his staff when developing the plan, and when establishing or recommending priorities for support.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
The regimental support squadron command post collocates with the regiment's rear command post. The regimental support squadron commander, XO, S3, S2, S4, S1, signal officer, S1, and S4 NCOIC are located in the squadron command post. The regimental Materiel Maintenance Center is normally collocated with the command post. The rear command post controls all support squadron units, and is the net control station for the regiment's administrative/logistics FM nets. There are three methods in which the regimental S1 and S4 may operate their sections:
Regardless of the method chosen, the location of the regimental S1 and S4 is dependent on METT-T. In either of the three methods, the key to success is having elements of the regimental S1 and S4 at both the regimental main and rear command posts, thus increasing the flexibility of the operations support cells at both locations. The S4 section in the main command post serves as the primary service support planning and coordination center. The regimental S4 sends plans to the regimental support squadron on mobile subscriber equipment.
Logistics support is the provision of adequate material and services to a unit. It includes supply, transportation, maintenance, and field services. The key tactical CSS functions of arming, fueling, fixing, and transporting are logistics concerns. These key functions are the focus of logistics operations in combat.
Supply is the process of providing all items necessary to equip, maintain, and operate the unit. It involves the procurement, storage, distribution, maintenance, and salvage of supplies.
There are two methods of procuring supplies:
Cavalry units always maintain some combat essential supplies on hand, which are transported on organic combat and support vehicles. These on-hand stocks include basic loads and prescribed loads.
Supplies are grouped into ten classes for supply management and planning (see Figure 10-9). Resupply operations are based on these classes.
|II||Items of equipment other than principal items.|
|IV||Construction and barrier materials.|
|VI||Personal demand items normally sold through exchanges.|
|VII||Major end items.|
|IX||Repair parts and components. Class IXA is aviation peculiar.|
|X||Material to support nonmilitary programs.|
|MISC||Water, maps, captured material, and salvage material.|
The combat field feeding system is based on three basic rations. The MRE is the individual combat ration. It requires little or no preparation and can be heated or eaten as is. MREs are the basis of the Class I basic load carried on each vehicle. The T-ration is a group feeding ration that requires only heating and serving. The B-ration is also used for group feeding. Since B-rations must be cooked, they require a relatively stabilized environment. The field feeding system assumes use of only MREs for the first several days of combat and a gradual transition to prepared T-rations and B-rations. A-rations (fresh foods) are introduced as the situation permits.
Troops do not send requests for rations. Rations are issued to troops based on daily strength reports. The squadron determines the type of ration that will be consumed, then consolidates the strength reports and submits it to the regimental Materiel Management Center (MMC), which converts the reports into line item requests. The regimental MMC forwards it to the supply and transport (S&T) troop Class I element. The regimental MMC determines the regiment's total requirements and sends the requisitions to the COSCOM MMC. The COSCOM MMC directs the corps supply point to ship the requested supplies to the regiment.
The COSCOM transports rations to the S&T troop location in the regimental support area. The rations are then broken down into squadron and separate troop lots and picked up by the units in organic transportation at the Class I distribution point. When appropriate, rations may be delivered direct to the using units by corps or S&T troop transportation. Squadron mess sections prepare the rations, as necessary, and break them down into troop lots. The rations are then loaded onto the troop supply truck in the field trains, and delivered forward as part of the LOGPAC.
The basic load for Class I is normally a three-day supply of MREs. The basic load should be preserved for use when the enemy situation prohibits daily resupply of Class I. When a unit is engaged in combat and Class I resupply is necessary, enough MRE rations should be issued to last several days.
Class VI supplies in the form of health and comfort packs are usually issued with Class I supplies as gratuitous issues.
Vehicle crews should deploy with an initial load of these supplies. The demand for these supplies is unpredictable and highly variable. Squadron supply sergeants maintain a small supply of items for immediate issue such as TA-50, NBC protective equipment, and general supplies.
The SOP should establish which of these items are resupplied on a push concept. COSCOM will push normal day-to-day administration and housekeeping supplies to the S&T supply point. These items are picked up routinely by the squadrons who in turn push them to the troops as part of the LOGPAC.
The first sergeant makes a request to the S4 for additional items needed. The S4 consolidates troop requests and submits them to the regimental MMC. The regimental MMC will instruct S&T troop to issue the supplies if on hand (S&T troop maintains a minimum stockage of high-demand items). Otherwise, the regimental MMC will submit a request to the COSCOM MMC. COSCOM then delivers the supplies to the S&T supply point. The squadron normally uses organic transportation to pick up and deliver the items to the squadron field trains. They are carried forward with the next LOGPAC.
CLASS III (PACKAGED)
The concept of Class III (package) supply is similar to Class II with several exceptions. The squadron basic load is normally maintained by the support platoon. These items are normally delivered to the squadron on fuel trucks as part of the LOGPAC. S&T troop maintains a one-day supply for the regiment.
CLASS III (BULK)
The S4 forecasts fuel requirements for the squadron during the planning process and transmits this request to the Class III section of the regimental MMC. The regimental MMC forwards a consolidated forecast to the COSCOM MMC for command management information.
COSCOM delivers the bulk products to the Class III supply point of the S&T troop by corps fuel tankers, railway tank car, barge, pipeline, or flexible hoseline. When tanker semitrailers are used, the semitrailers may be exchanged with the COSCOM transportation unit. The S&T troop fuel trucks are then convoyed to the squadron field or combat trains for issue. The fuel is transloaded into squadron fuel trucks, which are then sent forward as part of a LOGPAC or separately, as needed. If necessary, combat vehicles may be refueled directly from S&T troop trucks.
Supplying aviation fuel, whether JP4 or JP8, is no different from combat vehicle fuel supply. COSCOM delivers aviation fuel to the S&T troop Class III supply point. The S&T troop delivers the fuel to the aviation squadron field trains or direct to transloading sites near FARPs.
The assault helicopter troop may be used to deliver fuel from the S&T troop Class III point to squadron trains, troop trains, or direct to the refuel site.
The concept of Class IV supply is similar to Class II with several exceptions. Combat vehicles carry limited construction and barrier materials. The S&T troop maintains a limited amount of Class IV supplies except for engineer construction material. Engineer construction material and intensively managed barrier material will be delivered throughput by COSCOM to the squadron-controlled supply point. This supply point is managed by the squadron with engineer representation.
Ammunition resupply is governed by required supply rates (RSR) and controlled supply rates (CSR). RSR is the amount of required ammunition estimated to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specific period. It is expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition fired by weapons, and in terms of other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items. CSR is the rate of ammunition consumption that can be supported, considering availability, facilities, and transportation. It is expressed in rounds per unit, individual, or vehicle per day. The CSR is normally announced at Theater Army level for each item of ammunition, and each subordinate commander announces a CSR for the next subordinate level. A unit may not draw ammunition in excess of its CSR without authority from its next higher headquarters.
Ammunition supply operations are based on a continual refill system. Issued stocks are replaced from stocks moved up from the rear. Unit basic loads are determined by regimental or higher headquarters based on the situation. Basic loads are normally transportable on combat vehicles and organic transportation assets. The regiment does not normally maintain a reserve of Class V supply. Other than that ammunition specified for an ammunition transfer point (ATP), the only ammunition maintained in the regiment is in the basic loads of the units. In some tactical operations, a regiment may be authorized to pre-position ammunition for future use.
The regimental S3 calculates the RSR and allocates CSR items to subordinate units as part of the planning process. The S3 gives the RSR to the regimental ammunition officer (RAO). The RAO or his representative monitors expenditure of ammunition through ammunition status reports. These reports are sent from platoon sergeants to the first sergeant or troop TOCs, who consolidate them and forward a troop report to the S4. The S4 consolidates the troop reports and forwards a squadron report to the MMC (RAO). The RAO forecasts ammunition requirements based on the RSR and his monitoring of ongoing ammunition expenditures. The RAO forwards the consolidated RSR to the COSCOM MMC. The COSCOM MMC then issues shipping instructions to corps transportation assets to ship ammunition from the corps storage area or ammunition supply point to the ATP operated by S&T troop in the regimental support area. The S&T troop transports ammunition from the ATP to the squadron field trains, combat trains, or the rearm site. The ammunition is then moved forward either as part of the LOGPAC or separately.
Ammunition supply is highly variable and it is difficult to use a push system. Methods of reducing handling time and conserving transportation include the following:
Class VII items are not stocked in the regiment except for a limited operational readiness float in the maintenance troop. Class VII items are limited to combat-essential, critical items necessary to support combat readiness.
Combat loss and Class VII status reports are forwarded from the platoon sergeant through the first sergeant to the S4. The S4 then sends in battle loss reports as they occur and a summary report of Class VII status periodically to the regimental MMC. The regimental MMC submits requests to the COSCOM MMC.
Rolling stock Class VII items are delivered throughput by corps transportation to the supported squadron field trains in a ready-for-issue condition. A ready-for-issue item is one that has been removed from its previous condition of preservation for shipment or storage and made mechanically operable. All ancillary equipment is installed. The vehicle has been fueled and basic issue items are aboard. There is no ammunition and no crew provided. All other Class VII items are delivered to the S&T troop for issue to the squadrons. The S&T troop delivers the item to the squadron field trains, if practicable (such as on a cargo truck already designated for haul), or the squadron picks up the item at the S&T troop location using supply point distribution.
WEAPON SYSTEM REPLACEMENT OPERATIONS (WSRO)
WSRO is a combination of Class VII supply, maintenance, training, and personnel replacement operations. WSRO is an issue of a ready-to-fight system to a subordinate unit. A ready-to-fight system is a ready-for-issue weapon system to which a crew and ammunition are added and weapons boresighted. Managing weapon systems is the most efficient way to accomplish allocation of limited numbers of replacement combat vehicles and personnel. It removes the burdensome and time-consuming process of forming replacement weapon systems within the squadron.
The regimental support squadron commander designates a weapon system manager (WSM) within the regimental MMC. The appropriate sections within the MMC and a personnel manager from the AG platoon advise the WSM of the status of weapon system assets and execute instructions from him.
The S4 and the S1 monitor weapon system status as reported by the troops. They forward summary reports periodically to the regimental MMC. These reports serve as requisitions to the regiment for both personnel and equipment. The WSM forwards a consolidated regimental report to the COSCOM WSM. The consolidated report serves as a requisition to the COSCOM.
The primary linkup point for crew and vehicle is at the S&T troop Class VII assembly area. The maintenance troop headquarters, the replacement element of the AG platoon, and the Class VII assembly area are closely located to facilitate face-to-face coordination. Crews can also move between the three elements without transportation. Complete weapon systems may be formed at COSCOM and travel from corps to the regiment by rail or to the squadron by heavy-equipment transporter (HET). Equipment is normally transported to the S&T troop as described in Class VII supply. Personnel are transported forward to the regimental support area by rail, air, or truck.
The WSM will instruct the AG platoon to send a specified number of combat vehicle crews to the S&T troop Class VII assembly area. The S&T troop personnel direct the crew to a specific vehicle. The crew will stow the basic issue items; check external and internal communications; and boresight, test-fire, or zero the weapons.
The WSRO concept recognizes that the tactical situation may permit a partial crew to perform the above tasks and to drive to their unit or be transported by HET. However, only complete weapon systems will normally move forward of the regimental support area. The WSM closely monitors crew assets available in the squadrons. Available crew members will be returned from the squadron to the replacement element of the AG platoon on any suitable transportation returning from the squadron. The replacement element then forms the new crew and directs the crew to the S&T troop Class VII assembly area. Crew integrity is maintained on a squadron basis as much as possible to enhance unit cohesion and rapid assimilation of new soldiers.
The WSM must also closely coordinate with the maintenance management officer of the regimental MMC to verify the status of combat vehicles being repaired in direct support maintenance units and the numbers of crew members with combat vehicles. Replacement crew members could join a combat vehicle at the maintenance site and assist in expediting maintenance.
COSCOM assumes the linkup responsibility in case the tactical situation prevents linkup in the regimental support area.
The regimental XO allocates weapon systems to squadrons based on recommendations from the regimental S4. The S4 develops his recommendation based on the status of each squadron. The XO considers the status and the tactical situation when allocating replacement systems. The S4 forwards the allocation to the WSM. The WSM then directs the S&T troop to issue the system to a particular squadron. When possible, weapon systems are returned to the squadron from which the crew came.
The S&T troop coordinates the movement of weapon systems from the regimental support area to the squadron trains. The weapon systems can be moved under their own power or transported on HET. The weapon systems are then moved forward as part of the LOGPAC or separately to the troops.
Aircraft as a weapon system are treated the same as combat vehicles, except that the WSM must coordinate closely with the corps AVIM battalion on the status of aircraft being repaired.
The medical troop normally establishes a regimental medical supply section distribution point at a site that is accessible to ambulances returning to squadron aid stations after dropping patients at the regimental support area clearing station.
Squadron aid stations send informal requests to the regimental clearing station with ambulances evacuating patients. The clearing station fills the request immediately, if possible, then forwards unfilled requests and any requests for replenishment of its own supplies to the medical supply distribution point.
Supplies are issued by the distribution point to ambulances returning forward to the squadron aid stations. The supplies may also be carried forward on trucks or aircraft. The aid station distributes supplies to the troop aid and evacuation teams. Prepackaged and inventoried combat aid kits are exchanged for used ones at the aid station.
Those repair parts and other maintenance related items required to perform authorized unit maintenance tasks make up a unit's PLL. Repair parts, unlike other supply operations, are handled by the maintenance support system. A PLL is maintained in the squadrons by each ground troop or company, the squadron, and the AVUM troop. These PLLs are continuously reconstituted by authorized stockage lists maintained by the maintenance troop in the regimental support squadron and the corps AVIM battalion.
A combat PLL, composed of combat-essential repair parts to sustain the squadron during its initial entry into combat, is stocked during peacetime as part of the troop and squadron PLLs. Items in the combat PLL need not be demand supported. In combat, noncombat-essential parts, such as those required to comply with peacetime legal or safety requirements and those for comfort or cosmetic purposes, are left behind.
Troop and squadron PLLs are often collocated in the field trains but are not normally consolidated. Elements of squadron PLL may be forward in the UMCP for immediate use. Troop combat trains often carry selected parts that can be carried on their vehicles. These parts are those that can be replaced on the vehicle quickly and will make the vehicle mission capable. Combat crews frequently carry high-demand suspension system components for field expedient repairs.
PLL clerks monitor the issue of repair parts and submit a request to the maintenance support team from the maintenance troop located with the squadron field trains. The maintenance support team submits requests to the Class IX storage element in the maintenance troop. The storage element fills the request from the authorized stockage lists or forwards the request, along with its own requests, to the regimental MMC. The regimental MMC edits and forwards requests to the COSCOM MMC.
COSCOM MMC issues the materiel release order to the general support repair parts company who delivers repair parts to the maintenance troop. Class IX items are received and stored by the Class IX supply operating elements of the maintenance troop. The items are then delivered to the maintenance support team by maintenance troop or support team vehicles, or aircraft. The maintenance support team then delivers the items to the squadron maintenance element in the field trains who sends the parts forward as part of the LOGPAC or separately.
Low-dollar value, high-demand parts are obtained from the quick supply store in the maintenance troop without formal request. In some cases, controlled exchange and cannibalization may be required to obtain Class IX supplies. These are combat expedient methods prescribed in unit SOPs.
The AVUM troop maintains the aviation PLL for the regimental aviation squadron. Requests for supply support are submitted to the AVIM maintenance support team located with AVUM. If the maintenance support team cannot fill the request, it is forwarded to the regimental MMC who forwards it to COSCOM MMC. COSCOM MMC then sends the request to the AVIM battalion for fill. The AVIM battalion delivers the part to the aviation squadron using organic or backhaul aircraft or ground transportation. The AVUM troop may deal directly with the AVIM battalion according to local SOP.
These items are used to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development (not included in Class I through IX). Class X items are requested by S4s through the regimental S4 to the regimental MMC. Regimental MMC requests the items from COSCOM MMC. These items are delivered similar to Class II and IV items.
The armored cavalry regiment begins an operation with the necessary maps to execute initial and planned subsequent or contingency missions. The S2s plan this map basic load in accordance with guidance from the squadron commander, the regimental S2, and the regimental commander. A basic load of maps covering a large operational area should be maintained on each vehicle to facilitate the rapid assumption of unforeseen missions. The S&T troop stores a reserve of unclassified maps. The regimental S2 determines priorities of allocation for the regiment.
The S2 determines map requirements for the squadron and requests maps through the S4 to the S&T troop. Maps are distributed in the same manner as Class II and IV supplies. The S&T troop obtains bulk stocks of unclassified maps for the regiment from the supporting engineer topographic company. Classified maps are requested and distributed through S2, regimental S2, and G2 channels.
When surface water sources are available, the combat engineer company in the regiment or corps engineer units will locate water; dig wells, if necessary; and perform the site improvements. Host-nation water supplies may also be available. After the water site is established, the S&T troop operates water pumping, purification, and storage equipment. The S&T troop is responsible for water potability and distribution, to include the establishment of water points. Medical troop provides test equipment and personnel to certify water as potable. Water points should be collocated with Class I distribution points, if possible. Squadrons draw water from the nearest water point, using supply point distribution. Water is delivered forward on the troop supply trucks as part of the LOGPAC. Water trailers are normally supplemented with 5-gallon cans that are exchanged by combat crews.
When surface water sources are not available in the regimental support area, corps or theater resources consisting of transportation units or pipelines are used to move water to it.
Transportation is the means of distributing supplies, evacuating damaged equipment, and moving personnel to where they are needed. The armored cavalry regiment has organic ground and air transportation and is completely mobile without augmentation.
The principal transportation assets in the regiment are as follows:
Alternative transportation means available outside the regiment are as follows:
The regimental S3 recommends operational priorities to the regimental commander for transportation. The regimental S4 has staff responsibility for transportation, plans the use of transportation for CSS, and integrates transportation into the administrative/logistics plan. The S4 delegates authority for transportation matters to the movement control officer, who works for him. The movement control officer is the principal transportation coordinator in the regiment. He receives transportation requests from S4s within the regiment and tasks organic transportation units with missions. He also plans and implements highway regulation of road networks within the regiment's area of responsibility. The movement control officer coordinates with the COSCOM movement control team when resources are required beyond the capabilities of organic transportation units. He coordinates with the aviation squadron S3 when utility helicopters from the assault helicopter troop are needed for transportation. The movement control officer coordinates with and assists the support squadron commander through the transportation plans and control officer (TPCO) in the support squadron's S2/S3 section for the use of the support squadron's transportation assets. The TPCO plans and controls the assignment of missions to the S&T troop. The TPCO allocates regimental support squadron transportation assets in accordance with priorities of the regimental commander as relayed by the movement control officer. When requirements exceed capabilities, the TPCO requests additional support from the movement control officer.
Air transport includes all methods of transporting materiel and personnel by air. The modes of delivery are rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft. The methods of delivery are air landing of the aircraft, airdrop by parachute, free fall from an aircraft, and external sling load on rotary-wing aircraft. Except for the assault helicopter troop, the armored cavalry regiment must depend on external resources for their air transport needs.
Air transport requests that are beyond the capability of the assault helicopter troop are sent by the movement control officer to the corps movement control center. The corps movement control center is responsible for tasking corps aviation units with the mission. If the mission is beyond the capability of the corps aviation unit or if airdrop or air landing the cargo would better meet the requirement, a request for Air Force support is initiated. In this joint operation, supplies and equipment to be transported, ground transportation to move them, parachutes and air items used in rigging of loads, and ground personnel supporting the operation are Army responsibilities.
There are three types of airlift mission:
Request procedures for both airlift and airdrop are the same. The movement control officer requests transport for preplanned and immediate missions from the corps movement control center, which submits a request to the joint force commander's designated representative. Requests for emergency missions are submitted through operations channels. The squadron XO requests support from the regimental XO who, in turn, submits the request to the corps TOC. Detailed information is available in FM 100-27.
Maintenance involves inspecting, testing, servicing, repairing, recovering, evacuating, and rebuilding equipment. Repair and recovery are completed as far forward as possible, and at the lowest capable echelon. When equipment cannot be repaired on site, it is moved only as far as necessary for repair. When all maintenance requirements cannot be met, the regimental XO determines maintenance priorities for subordinate units based on operational requirements of the regiment and recommendations of the support squadron commander and the S4.
The Army maintenance system consists of four levels:
Unit maintenance consists of those tasks performed by operators and crews and organic maintenance sections and platoons. The functions of unit maintenance are to repair by replacement; make minor repairs; and perform adjustments, cleaning, lubricating, and tightening services. Unit maintenance elements also perform recovery tasks. Operator and crew maintenance is preventive in nature, performed continuously, and is the foundation of an effective maintenance system. Operator and crew maintenance keeps equipment functioning within prescribed operating limits and identifies minor problems that can be easily fixed before they become major problems, causing significant down time or repair effort. Troop maintenance personnel, backed up by squadron maintenance platoons and the AVUM troop, perform diagnosis, make minor adjustments and repairs, and repair end items by exchanging faulty modules and components. These functions can be performed on site or in the UMCP.
Direct support maintenance is performed by DS maintenance units working with the unit maintenance personnel well forward in combat or field trains and in support areas. The function of direct support is to repair end items on a return-to-user basis and to repair selected unserviceable components and modules in support of the repairable exchange system. The maintenance troop provides maintenance support teams to support the squadrons on either a permanent or as-needed basis. For direct support maintenance, emphasis is placed on repairing end items by replacing components and modules. The extent of maintenance performed on specific end items is restricted by such factors as time available for repair, availability of repair parts, resupply, and workload. Direct support is normally the highest level of maintenance support provided by the maintenance troop.
General support maintenance is primarily limited to repair and return to the supply system. It is job or production-line oriented. Maintenance tasks at this level include battle damage assessment; diagnosis; repair of assemblies, components, and modules; and maintenance of theater reserve stocks. General support maintenance is performed by units located in the communications zone.
Depot maintenance personnel rebuild end items, modules, components, and assemblies; perform cyclic overhaul; perform inspections; and complete modifications requiring extensive disassembly or elaborate testing. Depot maintenance is performed in fixed facilities in CONUS and the theater of operations. It is production-line oriented and supports the supply system.
AVIATION MAINTENANCE LEVELS
There are three levels of aviation maintenance:
Controlled exchange is the systematic removal of serviceable parts, components, or assemblies from unserviceable but economically repairable equipment for immediate use in restoring a like item of equipment to a combat operable and serviceable condition. The serviceable part is replaced by the unserviceable part. It is performed in strict compliance with SOP. Once authority to conduct controlled exchange is granted, the maintenance troop commander or platoon leader approves each exchange. It expedites a repair and return-to-user operation in support of materiel readiness and operational effectiveness. This expedited repair practice is permitted when the required serviceable part, component, and assembly cannot be obtained on a timely basis through normal supply channels or repairable exchange. Controlled exchange is performed by mechanics on site, at the UMCP, or at the maintenance unit area.
Cannibalization is the authorized removal for reuse of parts or components from uneconomically repairable or disposable end items or assemblies. It is a supply source for authorized low mortality or difficult to obtain repair parts, components, and assemblies. It is a source for high priority items when delivery cannot be made by the required delivery date. It is performed in strict compliance with the SOP and in close coordination with maintenance support team personnel. Once authorized, it is supervised like controlled exchange. Cannibalization is a major source of repair parts in a combat environment and should be aggressively used to keep the maximum number of combat systems operational.
BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND REPAIR
BDAR is the first step in returning disabled equipment to the battle. BDAR is the act of inspecting battle damage to determine its extent, classifying the type of repairs required, and determining the maintenance activity best suited to accomplish the repair. BDAR is accomplished at each point in the echeloned maintenance system. If essential repairs cannot be made at the breakdown site, further recovery to the UMCP or directly to the appropriate maintenance location is made. Maintenance support team personnel may determine that a piece of equipment requires evacuation direct to the maintenance unit with the appropriate repair capability, bypassing other echelons.
RECOVERY AND EVACUATION
Recovery is extricating damaged equipment or equipment requiring extensive maintenance to a location where either repair can be accomplished or evacuation can begin. Evacuation is the movement of recovered materiel from a main supply route or maintenance collecting point to higher levels of maintenance. The squadrons are responsible for recovering their own damaged equipment. Evacuation is the responsibility of maintenance troop and is a coordinated effort between maintenance, supply, and transportation elements.
Recovery operations include the following actions:
Recovery out of the line of fire by the crew or another vehicle in the platoon allows the recovery team from the troop combat trains to approach the damaged vehicle and initiate BDAR behind cover. (When the troop recovery team is overloaded, squadron recovery teams from the maintenance platoon may assist.) The recovery team completes BDAR and immediately repairs the vehicle, if possible. If repairs cannot be made because of the extent of damage, time, or other reason, the recovery team moves the vehicle to the UMCP. BDAR is performed again at the UMCP and a determination made to repair the vehicle on site, at the combat trains, at the field trains by the DS maintenance support team, or to evacuate. If the item will be repaired by the DS maintenance support team, the squadron normally recovers the vehicle to the field trains. If squadron assets are overloaded, recovery support can be coordinated with the DS maintenance support team to preclude excessive repair delays.
Equipment that cannot be repaired by the DS maintenance support team is normally evacuated. Items are normally evacuated from the DS site in the field trains, but may be evacuated from as far forward as the combat trains. Equipment is evacuated to the corps element in the nearest corps support group. Evacuation by the S&T troop is used when possible to keep the unit recovery effort forward. The S&T troop normally provides the trucks used to evacuate major pieces of combat equipment. Transportation may be available by using corps transportation unit trucks to backhaul items being evacuated. Maintenance troop should request corps assistance when the regiment's evacuation assets are overloaded.
Enough crew members remain with the vehicle during the recovery and repair process to assist and to return the vehicle to the unit when repairs are completed. They may also man operational weapons to provide additional security in rear areas. Communications equipment installed in the vehicle is evacuated with the vehicle. Personal equipment of crewmen not accompanying the vehicle and other appropriate equipment are removed before the vehicle leaves the troop area. If the vehicle is evacuated beyond the DS maintenance support team site in the field trains, the entire crew returns to the troop or is moved to the WSRO site.
The same principles of recovery and evacuation apply to the regimental aviation squadron with the following additions. The AVUM troop performs aircraft recovery for the aviation squadron. AVUM troop can perform standard rigging of aircraft using recovery kits. When an aircraft is down, the AVUM troop commander moves a contact team to the site by air or ground to perform BDAR. This action is coordinated with the ground squadron or other unit occupying the area. If the contact team cannot make the aircraft mission capable on site, recovery may require the on-site repair of the aircraft for a one-time flight. If neither of these alternatives is possible, the AVUM troop commander coordinates for recovery and prepares the aircraft for movement by a cargo helicopter or a suitable ground vehicle from the support platoon or S&T troop. In extreme circumstances, only a portion of an aircraft may be recovered. An aircraft is cannibalized at a field site only when the combat situation and aircraft condition are such that the aircraft would otherwise be lost to approaching enemy forces. If the recovery is beyond the AVUM troop's capability and wheeled vehicles are not available or feasible, AVIM support is requested.
Aircraft recovery should be planned in advance with contact teams and recovery assets designated and, if possible, dedicated for an operation. Given the regiment's normal area of operations in relation to the main battle area and corps main body, wheeled vehicles may be the primary means of transportation used for recovery and evacuation of aircraft.
Combat power is maximized when disabled equipment is repaired as far forward and as quickly as possible. The squadron maintenance officers and AVUM troop commander, in coordination with the squadron XOs, direct the maintenance effort for the squadrons, using established time guidelines and coordinating maintenance actions. The fix forward concept entails positioning appropriate maintenance elements forward on the battlefield to perform repairs, but also rapid recovery of the vehicle if repairs cannot be made within specified time frames. This allows the unit to retain possession of its equipment on a fluid battlefield.
Contact teams or maintenance support teams are used at each echelon of command to put the appropriate maintenance elements forward. Planning the support of the contact team and the maintenance support team should be integrated among all echelons of maintenance. When these teams are sent forward, they should be configured with appropriate mechanics, repair parts, tools, and recovery equipment to perform repairs or recovery within time guidelines established for that echelon of maintenance.
The contact team performing battle damage assessment and diagnosis determines repair time. An item is repaired on site or recovered directly to the appropriate maintenance echelon in the appropriate support area based on considerations listed below.
Maintenance repair time guidelines establish the maximum time that unserviceable equipment will remain in various support areas. Time guidelines are exclusive of the time necessary to move to the site and conduct battle damage assessment. Such times, based on distance and terrain, should be considered when developing repair time guidelines. METT-T and command policy guide the type or level of repairs each unit performs; units do not strictly adhere to established repair time intervals.
Direct support units accomplish forward support by frequently using maintenance support teams. One maintenance support team is normally dedicated to each squadron and locates in the squadron field trains. The aviation squadron normally receives an AVIM maintenance support team from the corps AVIM battalion. Other corps maintenance support teams are allocated to the maintenance troop for missile, communications, and other equipment as necessary. Many of these teams augment the maintenance troop when workloads require additional assets.
AVIATION MAINTENANCE SUPPORT
Aviation maintenance is intensively managed to keep as many aircraft mission-capable as possible. There will be a large increase in flying hours and a greater demand for operational aircraft during combat operations. These increased requirements will be complicated by higher attrition and battle damage rates, which create shortages of repair parts and replacement aircraft. A realistic controlled exchange/cannibalization policy, rapid recovery of damaged or downed aircraft, and a flexible system of cross-leveling spares is an essential part of the transition into the rigorous demands of combat maintenance. Implicit in the remove-and-replace maintenance approach is the deferment of scheduled maintenance tasks and the total shift to on-condition maintenance.
The regimental aviation squadron is supported by the aviation maintenance battalion (AMB). The AMB provides AVIM for the corps airframes, power plants and drivetrains, armament, avionics, and backup AVIM for division aviation maintenance companies. In addition to AVIM, the AMB provides backup AVUM support, recovery and evacuation support, direct exchange services, operationally ready floats, and aviation Class IX authorized stockage lists. The AMB establishes a close working relationship with the AVUM troop.
During the early hours and days of a conflict, extreme requirements are placed on all aviation assets. Aircraft readiness and the ability to sustain that readiness must be assured. This requires extensive use of AVIM support teams providing forward support at the AVUM site where the major thrust is to remove and replace components. The AMB commander and AVUM troop commander should coordinate the use of AVIM maintenance support teams before operations begin. The maintenance team's support should be habitual.
To facilitate aviation support, the regimental S4 and regimental MMC must know the status of squadron aircraft and maintenance activities. Requests for aviation-specific support may be forwarded by the AVUM troop commander direct to the AMB, through the regimental MMC to COSCOM MMC for materiel, or through the regimental S4 to the corps G4 for services.
COMSEC equipment is evacuated through Class VII channels to the corps signal brigade.
Unit maintenance is performed by the operator and crew and unit maintenance personnel. Unit maintenance is limited to care and preservation actions. DS maintenance support for ammunition items is provided by corps ordnance units. This maintenance is performed in the corps area when possible. Units holding ammunition stocks that require DS maintenance must return such stocks to the nearest ammunition supply point.
MAINTENANCE SUPPORT OF CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS
Troop combat trains displace often, remaining close behind the platoons for immediate support. The first sergeant directs the movement of the combat trains based on maneuver of the platoons. Once emplaced, he notifies the XO of the new location.
The UMCP normally displaces with the other elements of the combat trains. During periods of frequent displacement, the squadron maintenance officer may direct the UMCP to displace by echelon. In this case, some assets of the maintenance platoon complete repair on vehicles at the old site before displacing forward to the new location. During operations with rapid forward movement, the UMCP will conduct only essential and simple recovery. Other disabled vehicles are taken to maintenance collection points or to the main supply route where they remain to be repaired or evacuated by the DS maintenance support team as they displace forward with the field trains.
Maintenance operations must continue at night. At night, maintenance is accomplished in lightproof or light-suppressing maintenance tents or other shelters. Permanent structures such as warehouses, civilian garages, and barns are preferred. If large shelters are not available, field expedient shelters and low-light sources are used.
Frequent displacement and 24-hour operations quickly take their toll on maintenance effectiveness. Knowing this, first sergeants, squadron maintenance officers, and AVUM commanders must properly manage maintenance personnel and resources. Peripheral requirements-such as local security, preventive maintenance of maintenance unit vehicles and equipment, and rest plans-must be planned in advance or included in the unit SOP. This ensures that work remains at a high standard even under strenuous conditions.
Field services include mortuary affairs; food preparation; water purification; airdrop; laundry, shower, and clothing and light textile repair; and force provider.
Food preparation is a basic unit function performed by food service personnel throughout the theater. It is one of the most important factors in soldier health, morale, and welfare. Virtually every type of unit in the force structure, divisional and nondivisional, has some type of food service personnel. These personnel support the unit's food service program as directed by the commander.
Water is an essential commodity. It is critical to the individual soldier and necessary for sanitation, food preparation, construction, and decontamination. Support activities, such as helicopter maintenance and operations of medical facilities, consume large volumes of water. Water purification is a field service. Quartermaster supply units normally perform water purification in conjunction with storage and distribution of potable water. Nonpotable water requirements are the responsibility of the user.
It is an article of military faith that every effort is made to properly account for casualties and evacuate remains.
The armored cavalry regiment normally relies on organic personnel for mortuary affairs (MA) support. This will impose a strain on the supply system unless planned ahead of time. There is only one NCO in the S&T troop organization to perform MA duties. The regiment and squadrons may be compelled to pull personnel from other duties to perform MA tasks.
The S&T troop may be augmented with a field services platoon from COSCOM containing a MA section or it may be augmented with a MA section alone. In this situation, the MA section works under the MA specialist from S&T troop.
Mortuary affairs at squadron level consists of three functions: collection, identification, and evacuation. Casualty feeder reports and witness statements are completed by a soldier who has knowledge of the casualty and forwarded to the squadron S1. The troop collects the casualty's military equipment and turns it over to the troop supply sergeant during LOGPAC operations. Medics or other support personnel place remains in a human remains pouch, along with personal effects. The remains are then evacuated with LOGPAC vehicles returning to the field trains. Disabled vehicles or any other form of transportation may be used to transport remains. A collecting point may be established, if necessary, at the combat trains in the vicinity of the aid station or in the field trains. In any case, remains are evacuated as rapidly as possible to the MA collecting point in the regimental support area.
The MA section (either augmented from the field services platoon or ad hoc from organic personnel) operates the regiment's MA collecting point. This point is located near the main supply route, but if possible, is isolated from other activities. The MA section is responsible for coordinating the evacuation of remains from squadron and other collecting points.
If the tactical and logistical situation makes evacuating impossible, emergency on-site burial is necessary. This must be authorized by squadron commanders. The site must be clearly marked and documented with an overlay and appropriate forms. If the remains are contaminated, the grave site must be clearly marked and separated from uncontaminated grave sites. This must also be indicated on the grave site overlay.
During all MA operations, remains should be screened from view so that they will not affect morale. FM 10-63 discusses mortuary affairs in greater detail.
Airdrop support is coordinated through corps. The regimental MMC requests support as directed by the regimental S4. The regimental MMC coordinates with the corps MMC. The regiment is responsible for preparing and marking a drop zone. The air liaison officer provides technical assistance in site selection and marking.
LAUNDRY, SHOWER, AND CLOTHING AND LIGHT TEXTILE REPAIR
Laundry, shower, and clothing and light textile repair services are provided by the laundry and renovation platoon in the supply and service company or field services company, COSCOM.
COSCOM designates a corps field service company, a supply and service company, or special team augmentation to perform this mission. When the regiment is augmented with a field services platoon, the shower, laundry, clothing repair (SLCR) section in that platoon is capable of operating two SLCR points in support of the regiment. Because all units providing SLCR support are limited in personnel, supported squadrons may be required to provide personnel to assist in safeguarding valuables, securing equipment, and issuing clothing.
The army's force provider is a modular system, principally designed to provide the front-line soldier with a brief respite from the rigors of a combat environment. It includes environmentally controlled billeting; modern latrines, showers and kitchens; morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) facilities; and complete laundry support. The modules can be complexed to provide support to the regiment. The cadre for the system will need to be reinforced to provide effective support.
The personnel support system (PSS) is a wide range of functions at all levels to provide support for the soldier. Personnel support has two components: manning the force and personnel services support. Manning the force includes personnel readiness management, personnel accounting and strength reporting, casualty operations management, and replacement management. Personnel services support includes personnel information management, postal operations management, and MWR and community support. This support sustains soldiers, their morale, and their welfare.
In combat, three PSS functions are critical:
These functions and religious support are echeloned well forward to provide responsive support. Other functions are kept toward the rear and in some cases not introduced until the combat situation is stabilized. PSS is provided by the regimental HHT AG platoon and the regimental unit. The platoon is located in the regimental support area under the operational control of the regimental support squadron. External PSS is provided by COSCOM from a personnel service company, a direct support postal platoon, and a replacement company.
MANNING THE FORCE
The manning challenge is to ensure personnel support through the uninterrupted flow of soldiers to the battlefield. It should be considered as part of the "troops available" formula of METT-T.
Personnel Readiness Management
Personnel readiness management assesses an organization's combat power, plans for future operations, and assigns replacements on the battlefield. It predicts the need for replacements and provides a mixture of individuals and small units. Personnel readiness management includes the techniques and decision-making process used to allocate replacements and assess the combat capabilities of units from the personnel perspective. Strength accounting is the process of collecting, recording, and reporting numerical personnel data to analyze a unit's strength posture. Troops and attached units submit battle loss reports and routine personnel strength reports to their S1. The S1 forwards a consolidated report to the regimental administrative/logistics center. The regimental S1 monitors strength as it affects combat potential and recommends personnel assignment priorities to the commander. Determining specific personnel requirements and replacement distribution is the responsibility of the S1.
Personnel Accounting and Strength Reporting
Personnel accounting is the system for recording by-name data on soldiers. Personnel accounting information base management consolidates current and projected personnel information on soldiers and units in a number of command data (SIDPERS). This information serves as the basis for command decisions and projected battlefield requirements. This function is performed at the squadron and regimental PAC and at the regiment AG platoon. Standard reports available from the personnel accounting and strength reporting (PASR) system include the following:
Casualty Operations Management
Casualty operations management records, reports, and accounts for casualties promptly and efficiently. It supports personnel accounting and strength reporting. Timely and accurate casualty reporting is a critical and sensitive function. Initial reports are usually verbal. Written reporting occurs as soon as possible after the event and is initiated by the squad leader, tank commander, or any individual having knowledge of the casualty. Casualty feeder reports are submitted to provide initial information for informing the next of kin and for payment of benefits. When a soldier is reported missing or missing in action, or when remains are not under US control, a witness statement accompanies the casualty feeder report. The first sergeant collects and forwards reports to the squadron S1. The S1 reconciles information on casualty feeder reports with verbal information previously received, adjusts strength reports as necessary, and forwards the casualty feeder reports to the PAC. PAC maintains a casualty log, verifies casualty data, updates the personnel data base, and forwards completed reports through the AG platoon to the appropriate personnel service company. Casualty operations management coordinates the personnel and logistical processes involved in casualty management at all levels. This involves coordination primarily between the S1 and S4 personnel at both squadron and regimental level.
Strength accounting reports submitted by the AG serve as a request for replacements. COSCOM transports replacements forward to the regimental support area. The replacement element of the AG platoon should be located close to the S&T troop Class VII assembly area to support WSRO. Replacements not needed for WSRO are transported to squadron field trains on any available transportation. Coordinating for transportation is the responsibility of the AG platoon. Replacements are equipped with field gear and ammunition before departing the support area. A replacement receiving point is established in the squadron field trains. All replacements or returnees from the medical system are brought to the receiving point for integration into the squadron. After in-processing, replacements move forward to their troop with the LOGPAC under the control of the supply sergeant. Integrating them quickly into the unit is critical. The commander and first sergeant should personally meet them, brief them, and ensure that subordinate leaders do the same. New leaders should be briefed in detail on unit SOP and tactics and techniques.
PERSONNEL SERVICES SUPPORT
Personnel services support ensures readiness as well as sustains the human dimension of the force.
Personnel Information Management
Personnel information management provides a record of critical personnel information about soldiers to support battlefield decisions and to meet the nation's obligation to retain historical information for its veterans.
Postal Operations Management
Postal operations management manages and operates a postal network to move, deliver, and collect mail in the deployed force. It delivers official mail, including critical spare parts and medical supplies, and provides an alternate delivery system for personnel information.
A direct support postal platoon provides postal services to the regiment. In a conflict, postal services to soldiers are initially limited to personal mail (incoming and outgoing) that conforms to type and size limitations prescribed by the theater headquarters. Additional postal services are provided when the theater headquarters determines that the military situation permits. These services are as follows:
The direct support postal platoon delivers mail to the postal division in the regimental support area. Mail is distributed to the squadrons by the postal division, or is picked up in the support area by the squadron mail clerks. The squadron mail clerk sorts the mail by current task organization and distributes it to the unit supply sergeant (or mail orderly) who delivers it to the first sergeant, platoon sergeant, or to the soldier during LOGPAC resupply.
Morale, Welfare, and Recreation
Commanders use MWR activities to assist in relieving stress. Planning and executing the MWR mission on the battlefield is the responsibility of the squadron and the regimental S1.
OTHER PERSONNEL SERVICES
The administrative services branch in the AG platoon provides the following support:
During lulls in the battle, the S1 and PAC complete all administrative actions necessary at the squadron level. If possible, these are accomplished by forming personnel contact teams that move forward to squadron or troop locations. Special consideration is given to timely processing of awards, decorations, and personnel actions.
The regimental/squadron chaplain is a special/personal staff officer with direct access to the commander. He advises the commander on the religious welfare, morals, and morale of the unit as well as indigenous religions in the area of operations. He exercises technical control and coordination over the regiment's unit ministry teams (UMT) to ensure direct, general, and denominational religious support. UMTs are dedicated to delivering religious support far forward to meet the spiritual needs of soldiers in combat. Religious support includes performing/providing sacraments, rites, ordinances and worship services; pastoral care and counseling; battle fatigue ministry; and special services and ministrations.
Limited legal services are provided by the legal specialists in the AG platoon and squadron S1 sections. Additional staff judge advocate (SJA) support is provided by corps. SJA responsibilities include legal advice and assistance on all matters involving military, domestic, foreign, and international law and regulations. In addition, the SJA supervises the administration of military justice, processes claims for and against the US government, and furnishes personal legal assistance to authorized personnel.
Finance support is provided by the finance group assigned responsibility for the area in which the regiment is deployed. The finance group provides its services by finance support teams. The finance support teams make combat payments to soldiers in amounts established by the theater commander, or in lesser amounts if the soldier so desires. When and where the soldier is paid is determined by the commander and coordinated by the S1. Pay inquiries and changes are handled by finance support teams when making payments.
Information (public affairs) support for the regiment is provided by the public affairs personnel in the regimental headquarters under the control of the public affairs officer (PAO). The PAO provides public affairs advice and services concerning all matters of soldier and media interest. The PAO controls all public affairs assets assigned or attached to the regiment.
ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR
Maps and documents obtained on the battlefield and EPWs are valuable sources of combat information. Proper and rapid handling and evacuation are important as, in most cases, EPWs and documents lose their value quickly over time.
The capturing unit is responsible for guarding prisoners until relieved, recovering weapons and equipment, removing documents with intelligence value, and reporting to a command post. Platoon leaders report the capturing of documents and EPWs immediately to the troop command post and coordinate a rendezvous with the first sergeant. The first sergeant or his representative moves them to the squadron EPW collecting point established by the S1. (The S1 plans and coordinates EPW operations, collecting points, and evacuation procedures.) The collecting point should be accessible to the troops and near the S2, if possible. The squadron then moves the prisoners to the regiment's EPW collecting point established by the MI company (CEWI) where interrogation teams take control of them. All documents captured on or with the prisoners should be evacuated separate from, but along with, them for use during interrogation. Interrogation teams may be positioned forward at the squadron collecting point in direct support of the squadron. The squadron S4 coordinates for transportation of EPWs and equipment. Wounded prisoners are treated through normal medical channels, but remain separated from US and allied patients.
When large numbers of EPWs are collected during an operation, units may be required to assist evacuation.
The objective of military medicine is to conserve trained manpower. To achieve this objective, patients must be acquired, examined, treated, and returned to duty as far forward as possible or evacuated further. First aid is the responsibility of all soldiers; they use first aid, self-aid, buddy-aid, and combat lifesaver techniques. All soldiers are trained to take action after a soldier is wounded to keep him breathing, stop the bleeding, prevent shock, and dress the wound until medical personnel are available to treat the soldier. Preventive measures reduce nonbattle losses and require command attention. Health services in the regiment include unit-level support as well as regiment-level support.
The medical platoon is the focal point of combat health support (CHS) for the squadron. It is organized to support the troops; acquire, treat, and evacuate patients; and coordinate further evacuation as necessary. The platoon consists of a headquarters with the platoon leader and platoon sergeant, a treatment squad, and a combat medic and evacuation section. CHS is planned by the squadron surgeon or medical platoon leader and coordinated with the S1. The medical platoon leader, like any staff officer, must understand the concept of the tactical operation as well as the support plan of the medical troop.
The treatment squad operates the squadron aid station in the combat trains. The squad is capable of operating two aid stations for a limited time, but the normal employment is one aid station. Since the squadron normally has only one surgeon, a second aid station has limited capability. The aid station provides trained personnel to stabilize patients for further evacuation, to provide emergency lifesaving and limb-saving treatment, and to treat minor wounds or illnesses for return to duty. Other functions include the following:
The combat medic and evacuation section attaches teams to troops on a habitual basis. They support the troop with treatment and evacuation to the squadron aid station. They also support downed aircrews in the troop area of operations. Other duties include the following:
The medical troop in the support squadron provides combat health support to the regiment. The medical troop performs the following functions:
The medical troop operates from the regimental support area. Patient evacuation from the clearing station operated by the medical troop is performed by medical elements of the corps level combat health support system.
The troop commander is the regimental surgeon. In this capacity, he has direct access to the regimental commander and advises him on medical aspects of the regiment's operations and on the health of its soldiers. He exercises staff supervision over all combat health support activities in the regiment.
The troop is organized with a headquarters; regimental medical supply section; a treatment platoon with four treatment squads, an area support squad (dental, x-ray, and laboratory), and a patient holding squad; and an ambulance platoon with three wheeled ambulance squads and three tracked ambulance squads. The treatment platoon operates a clearing station in the regimental support area. The ambulance platoon provides ground evacuation support from squadron aid stations and backup evacuation support for the squadrons. The regimental medical supply section is responsible for resupply of medical supplies within the regiment.
Combat lifesavers receive additional training above the basic first-aid level and provide enhanced first aid to battlefield casualties before the arrival of the combat medic. The regimental surgeon plans the training of the combat lifesavers. Squadrons should have one soldier qualified as a combat lifesaver in each vehicle crew.
Patients are evacuated no further to the rear than their condition requires and are returned to duty as soon as possible. Combat medics recover patients on the battlefield and evacuate them rapidly to the aid station. It is imperative that combat vehicles and personnel not leave the battlefield unnecessarily to perform evacuation functions. If combat medics are not readily available in the troop area, patients may be evacuated on any suitable vehicle already moving to the rear, such as a recovery vehicle or maintenance vehicle.
Medical evacuation from the aid station may be by ground or air means. Aeromedical evacuation is used to the maximum extent possible. The medical troop coordinates for air ambulances from the corps medical evacuation battalion. Utility helicopters in the assault helicopter troop of the aviation squadron are not designed or staffed to evacuate patients. Ground ambulances are used for those patients who cannot be evacuated by air. The specific mode of evacuation is determined by the patient's condition, aircraft availability, and the tactical situation. Normally, the surgeon or physician's assistant treating the patient makes this determination.
COMBAT HEALTH LOGISTICS
The regiment is provided medical supply support by the corps medical logistics (MEDLOG) battalion. Within the regiment, medical supply, resupply, medical equipment, and blood are provided by the regimental medical supply section. Ambulances backhaul Class VIII when returning to forward areas. These same ambulances evacuating patients to the clearing station in the regimental support area carry requests for supplies from squadron aid stations. Within the squadron, combat medic and evacuation teams pick up supplies as they drop patients at the aid station. Upon their return to the troop, the combat medics distribute supplies to the combat lifesavers.
Organizational maintenance of medical equipment is provided or coordinated by the medical troop. The medical troop obtains direct support medical maintenance and supply support from the corps MEDLOG battalion.
More soldiers are lost in combat to illness, disease, and nonbattle injury than to combat wounds. Maintaining the health and fighting fitness of soldiers is a responsibility of all leaders. Commanders reduce the threat by emphasizing preventive measures. All surgeons and combat medics in the regiment support leaders in the areas of hygiene, sanitation, and counseling and treatment of stress and battle fatigue.
Rules of hygiene should be established in SOP and observed daily to prevent the spread of disease. Soldiers should wash and change undergarments daily. Cold and hot weather injuries must be prevented by proper clothing and inspections. Immunizations must be current.
Field sanitation is important to prevent the spread of debilitating diseases. Only approved or tested water sources should be used. Field mess operations must maintain clean kitchen equipment and follow proper cooking and cleaning procedures. Utensils used for eating must be properly cleaned before reuse. In static situations, soldiers use slit trenches or latrines; at other times they use cat holes. All must be covered up after use to prevent the spread of disease.
Rest is extremely important. The effects of sleep degradation are discussed in Chapter 2. Sleep plans must be practiced and established in SOP. When possible, soldiers should sleep outside vehicles to allow them to fully stretch out and get the full benefit of at least four hours of continuous sleep.
Safety is a continuous requirement to prevent accidents that injure soldiers. The combat environment is full of risks associated with vehicles, weapons, stress, and fatigue. Attention to detail can slip on matters that do not directly affect combat. Safety is inherent in following proper equipment and weapons operating procedures. SOPs incorporate safety concerns in establishing procedures for assembly areas and other locations of troop concentrations. Leaders enforce proper equipment-operating procedures and SOP safety items continuously.
The intensity of modern combat can result in substantial losses in the fighting capability of the regiment. Reconstitution consists of those actions taken to return it to an acceptable level of combat effectiveness. Reconstitution also includes actions necessary to maintain or restore the morale of the soldier. Reconstitution is best accomplished in an area not under immediate enemy threat. Reconstitution actions are either reorganization or regeneration, depending on the nature of losses suffered. Commanders will most often execute them in combination. The decision to reconstitute rests with the commander. He bases his decision on the tactical situation.
Reorganization restores combat effectiveness by cross-leveling assets internally. This may be done within platoons and troops, between troops, or between squadrons to produce balanced, effective but reduced strength units. Units do this as a matter of SOP during consolidation and reorganization phases of combat operations. Reorganization also includes the formation of composite units, resulting in fewer, but full strength, units. These actions are part of SOPs that also designate who has authority to consolidate subordinate units. Reorganization is initiated throughout a conflict and as often as practicable.
Regeneration is the rebuilding, to a specified level of combat effectiveness, of a squadron or the regiment through large scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies. This process is initiated when losses are too substantial to accomplish through reorganization. Unit regeneration consists mainly of two major subtasks-repair or replacement of critical equipment and replacement of critical personnel losses. Equipment comes from the Class VII resupply system or the maintenance system. Personnel come from the replacement or medical channels. Regeneration of the regiment or a squadron is normally controlled by corps.
The regeneration should be planned as any other tactical operation. Normally, regeneration of the regiment takes place in an assembly area in the corps rear. Coordination should be made for as many regeneration resources as possible to be in the assembly area before the regiment arrives. The regimental S4 has staff responsibility for regeneration, and the regimental MMC is the principal executor. The WSRO system will be used extensively. The regiment must maintain security of its assembly area during reconstitution. Just as important, however, is the need to maintain or reconstitute the mental well-being and fighting spirit of the soldier. Units should make an extraordinary effort to administer to this need during this time.
The time to complete regeneration varies with the situation. The controlling headquarters designates to the CSS planners a specific timeframe that regeneration should be completed. Time for a unit to train is essential to reestablish cohesion and teamwork. During regeneration, it may be necessary to use a combination of reorganization and regeneration techniques. Commanders should maintain the integrity of squads, crews, and sections as much as possible.
Units may be issued with equipment from theater stocks that is slightly different from original equipment or from equipment called for by TOE. Tasks such as crew drill, boresighting, zeroing, and adjustments in tactics should be trained as much as possible given the time available.
Reconstitution operations should be planned as any other operation. The commander plays the most crucial role in reconstitution planning. He assesses combat effectiveness and, in line with the higher headquarters plan, establishes the intent, concept, priorities, and criteria (time and effectiveness) of the reconstitution.
SOPs form the basis of efficient reconstitution efforts. SOPs should address the functions below.
Commanders routinely include actions in the battle plan to reduce the impact of the battle and to preserve his force. In some operations, commanders plan to conduct reconstitution at some point during the operation. The commander and staff should address the following functions in the plan:
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