CHAPTER 6

CREW WARFIGHTING

Warfighting is the mission of Army Aviation aircrews. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information and tactics techniques, and procedures for attack and armed-reconnaissance helicopter crews.

Section I. Fratricide Prevention

"Fratricide is the employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities, which results in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel."

- TRADOC Fratricide Action Plan

Fratricide is a fact in combat operations. Historically, fratricide incidents are most likely to occur in the early stages of combat, during reduced visibility, or along shared unit boundaries. Each one of us share the responsibility to stop fratricide. However, we must avoid the reluctance to employ, integrate, and synchronize all battlefield operating systems due to fear of fratricide. On the modern battlefield, the extreme range capability of the attack helicopter's direct fire weapons exceed the ability of the helicopter's sights to positively identify targets. Therefore, the decision to fire is based considerably on SITUATIONAL AWARENESS.

6-1. SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

Situational awareness is the real-time accurate knowledge of one's own location and orientation, as well as the locations of friendly forces, enemy forces, and noncombatants. Situational awareness includes awareness of the METT-T conditions that impact the operation. A breakdown in situational awareness is illustrated most frequently in the following ways:

a. Inadequate Fire and Maneuver Control. Units fail to disseminate the minimum necessary maneuver and fire support control measures to coordinate operations. Units fail to tie control measures to recognizable terrain features.

b. Direct Fire Control Failures. Units fail to designate easily recognizable and understandable target reference points, engagement areas, and engagement priorities.

c. Navigation Failures. Navigation problems can cause individual helicopters and units to stray out of sector, report wrong locations, become disoriented, or employ fire support weapons from wrong locations. As a result, friendly units may collide unexpectedly or engage each other erroneously.

d. Reporting, Crosstalk, and Battle Tracking Failures. Commanders and leaders at all levels often do not generate timely, accurate, and complete reports or track subordinates as locations and the tactical situation change. This erroneous information permits erroneous clearance of fires.

e. Known Battlefield Hazards. Unexploded ordnance, unmarked and unrecorded minefields, FASCAM, and booby traps litter the battlefield.

f. Combat Identification Failures. The inability or failure of the attack crew to positively identify the target.

6-2. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

There are numerous contributing factors (or preconditions) to fratricide. These factors are crucial in the commander's fratricide risk assessment prior to combat. They include, based on METT-T:

a. Mission and C2.

• High vehicle or weapons density.

Commander's intent unclear or complex.

Poor flank coordination.

Crosstalk lacking.

No habitual relationships between units.

b. Enemy.

Weak intelligence or reconnaissance.

Intermingled with friendly forces.

• Similar or same equipment as friendly forces.

c. Terrain and Environmental Conditions.

• Day versus night (unit training level).

• Obscuration or poor visibility.

• Extreme engagement ranges.

Navigation difficulties.

• Absence of recognizable features.

NBC environment.

Battlefield hazards (such as minefields and submunitions).

d. Troops and Equipment.

High weapon's lethality.

Unseasoned leaders or troops.

Poor fire control SOPs.

Incomplete rules of engagement.

Anxiety, confusion, or fear.

Failure to adhere to SOPs.

Low unit manning level.

Communication's effectiveness.

Weapon's errors.

Availability of navigation and positioning equipment.

e. Time.

Soldier and leader fatigue.

Inadequate rehearsals.

Short planning cycle.

f. The effects of a fratricide incident can be devastating to a unit. They include:

Hesitation to conduct limited visibility operations.

Loss of confidence in the unit's leadership.

Increase of leader self-doubt.

Hesitation to use supporting combat systems (FA).

Oversupervision of units.

Loss of initiative.

Loss of aggressiveness during fire and maneuver.

Disrupted operations.

Needless loss of combat power.

General degradation of cohesion and morale.

6-3. FRATRICIDE PREVENTION

Aviation units must practice antifratricide tactics, techniques, and procedures during all training. Unit SOPs must reflect a thorough understanding of fratricide and must focus on those TTP the soldiers understand, innovate and refine themselves, and practice frequently. The following initiatives can help establish and refine unit SOPs.

a. Doctrine/Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures.

(1) Direct Fire weapons control measures.

(a) Physically mark target reference points. Use ground-burning illumination, WP, beacons, colored smoke, strobes with IR filters, and identifiable engagement areas to orient maneuver and fires.

(b) Weapons control status for direct fires. Use a weapons control status similar to Air Defense. Weapons HOLD, TIGHT, and FREE would indicate the necessity of an external verification of the fire command or call for fire.

(c) Rules of engagement. Use detailed ROE to establish engagement criteria for various conditions crews may face. Establish a tie-in between visibility, FLIR conditions, and weapon engagement ranges.

(d) Control measures. Establish control measures that provide spacial separation between adjacent units. For example, an AH-64 battalion may establish a free-fire area in which, in coordination with their higher and adjacent units, the crews can have a high confidence that elements found within the area are not friendly. Buffer zones can also be established around ground units for close combat. Before control measures can be effective, they have to be accurately plotted on crew member's maps and fully understood.

(2) Indirect fire control measures. (Rockets and Field Artillery)

(a) Establish and practice routine positive controls (permissive controls to those who can see; restrictive measures protect those who are exposed).

(b) Establish simplified procedures for external clearance of fires. For example, an attack battalion clears all fire missions through their fire support officer.

(c) Incorporate fire support members in liaison teams for detailed flank coordination.

(d) Anticipate special controls needed for mixed voice-digital environments.

(3) Reconnaissance priorities.

(a) Consider priority intelligence requirements relating to the feasibility of the routes, navigation, and maneuver plan.

(b) Consider allocation of some reconnaissance to flank observation and reporting.

(c) Accurately track movement of ground forces in sector by radio net surveillance, visual observation, and tie-in with higher headquarters.

(4) Rehearsals. Benefits of rehearsals include:

(a) Well-understood fire control measures are established.

(b) Maneuver element locations and actions are well known.

(c) Information down to every crew member.

(d) Feedback to leaders result in refinements in the plan.

(e) Fratricide prevention measures are determined.

(f) Problems are identified and corrected.

(g) Increased crew member confidence and aggressiveness.

(h) Sense of partnership or ownership in the plan.

b. Training.

(1) Control measures and graphics training.

(a) Each crew member must be trained on the different types of control measures used and their graphic portrayal.

(b) Crews must ensure that they copy and plot graphics and control measures accurately on their maps. A 1- or 2-kilometer error could be the difference between life and death.

(2) Combat vehicle identification training.

(a) Don't key on vehicle details that the gunner could not realistically discern, such as bore evacuator position. Key on chassis shape, turret shape and position, and relative length of gun tube.

(b) Don't push for moving CVI Training. Studies show it is not critical in CVI training.

(c) Use "black-hot" as the normal thermal polarity setting for target identification, particularly at longer ranges. Make it a habit to shift polarities regularly in FLIR/TIS.

(d) Use training in assembly areas for vehicle ID. The tactical assembly area is a good place to train as it allows the crews to key in on the prevailing terrain of the area.

(3) Crew training.

(a) Crew training is focused on collective situational awareness, particularly at night. It includes training and assessment of the crew's ability to maintain awareness of their aircraft's heading and location in relation to both friendly and enemy forces.

(b) TASCs have training tapes available from the U.S. Army Armor Center and the Night Vision Laboratories, Fort Belvoir, showing thermal signatures of different vehicles, friendly and threat.

(c) Simulators. A situational training exercise in a compatible simulator can be an excellent building block threat for reliable identification. Intermingling threat and friendly vehicles on training scenarios may build crew confidence.

(d) Placing friendly vehicles in target arrays on the range for Tables IX-XII for situational awareness training is suggested by the US Army Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth.

(e) After action reviews following ALL training events.

(4) Advanced table training/live-fire.

(a) Allows leaders to track aircraft and ground force orientation in a "go to war" OPTEMPO.

(b) Uncovers weaknesses in unit's level of understanding of mission and combined arms operations.

(c) Uncovers weaknesses in unit leadership and planning.

(d) Builds confidence in unit's ability to conduct multiship warfighting missions.

(e) Focus on situational awareness from crew to battalion level.

c. Organization. Liaison officers and liaison parties are normally located in the Tactical Operations Center of the higher headquarters. A liaison party normally includes an assistant S3 officer, fire support officer, and a communication's specialist (enlisted). Primary duties are to--

(1) Make sure the scheme of maneuver and the intent of the ground commander is understood by the aviation element.

(2) Exchange information throughout the operation, not just on the front-end.

(3) Standardize graphic control measures.

(4) Establish and maintain communications between the aviation element and the ground element.

d. Materiel Solutions. Although many technical solutions to fratricide are being investigated, currently there are no materiel solutions to the fratricide problem.

(1) During "Operation Desert Storm", deployed units painted an inverted "V" on vehicles to denote friendlies. This symbol was understood by coalition forces, as the inverted V is the number 8 in Arabic. Some units also used IR reflective tape on vehicles to aid in vehicle recognition. The drawback was that to be visible at 2,000 meters, the symbol had to be at least 2 x 2 feet in size. Also, it was "directional", meaning that if the symbol was on the back of the vehicle, it was not visible when viewing the vehicle from the front.

(2) Although an Army standard for marking vehicles is established, it is very difficult to discern these markings at the standoff ranges of attack helicopters. Aviation units must not allow their training to focus solely on identifying vehicles by their markings.

e. Leader and Soldier Development.

(1) After-action reviews.

(a) All AARs should address fratricide whether or not it occurs.

(b) Highlight near-fratricidal incidents and fire control successes.

(c) Discuss and capture techniques for fratricide reduction.

(2) Field discipline.

(a) Mistakes with weapons and explosives, both friendly and enemy, historically account for a large number of casualties during conflict, many self-inflicted. Ensure all soldiers understand the command policies relating to the handling of live munitions.

(b) Commander's must enforce strict rules of engagement on use of booby traps, weapons on safe, employment of mines and explosives, and use of hand grenades to help prevent fratricide.

Section II. Target Acquisition

6-4. ACQUISITION DEFINED

Target acquisition is the timely detection, location, and identification of targets in sufficient detail to permit attack by either direct or indirect-fire weapons. Effective target acquisition requires the combined effort of the crew. This section describes the target acquisition process, discusses methods for acquiring and classifying targets, and relates target acquisition confirmation to conduct of fire.

6-5. TARGET ACQUISITION PROCESS

The target acquisition process is a series of progressive and interdependent steps or actions with which an aircrew acquires enemy targets for destruction. It is a continuing requirement for all aircrew members, whether in the offense or defense, moving or stationary. Crew Search is the crew's collective efforts, using both the unaided eye and aircraft optics, within assigned sectors of observation, to explore the area of operations visually for enemy presence. The acquisition process consists of the following elements:

a. Detection is the discovery, by any means available (sight, sound, smell) of any phenomena (personnel, equipment, objects) of potential military significance.

b. Identification is the friendly or hostile character of a detected potential target determined by its physical traits, such as size, shape, or functional characteristics.

(1) Classification is the categorizing of a potential target by the relative level of danger it represents.

(2) Confirmation is the rapid verification of a target in terms of the initial identification and classification. During the engagement, the crew must confirm that the target is properly identified and classified before engaging.

c. Location is the determination (by direction, reference point, or grid) of where a potential military target is on the battlefield (air or ground).

d. Reporting. Spot reports provide commanders with critical information during the conduct of missions. The method of sending or transmitting spot reports is specified by the requesting agency. Reports of no enemy sighting are frequently just as important as actual enemy sightings.

6-6. CREW SEARCH

Crew search, or observation, is the act of carefully viewing or watching the area of operation, using search and scanning techniques and sectors of observation, to acquire targets. Sectors of observation are areas assigned to each crew member for search and target acquisition. Crew members must know their assigned sectors of observation to ensure thorough coverage of the battlefield. When operating in larger groups (team, platoon, company), each helicopter's coverage will create overlapping fields of observation.

6-7. AERIAL SEARCH TECHNIQUES

Crew members will scan their areas of observation at all times to detect targets or possible target signatures. Three search techniques enable crew members to locate targets quickly: Side-scan, motive, and stationary. Crews must divide duties during deliberate search--someone must fly the helicopter. All three techniques may be employed using the aided or unaided eye or aircraft optics under both day and night conditions.

a. Side-Scan Technique. This technique normally is used when the aircraft is operating at an altitude of 100 feet AGL or higher at cruise airspeed. The crew is looking for readily visible or obvious sightings. Over most terrain, the CPG/CPO systematically --

(1) Looks out approximately 1,000 meters and searches in toward the aircraft.

(2) Looks out one-half the distance (500 meters) and searches in toward the aircraft.

(3) Looks out one-fourth the distance (250 meters) and searches in toward the aircraft.

(4) The CPG/CPO repeats the procedure.

b. Motive Technique. This technique is used when the aircraft is operating at terrain flight altitudes and at airspeeds of 10 KIAS or greater. The entire area on either side of the aircraft is divided into two major sectors: the nonobservation sector and the observation work sector. The nonobservation sector is the area where the aircrew's field of vision is restricted by the physical configuration of the aircraft. The observation work sector is that portion of the field of vision to which search activity is confined. The observation work sector is subdivided into two smaller sectors--

(1) The acquisition sector is the forward 45-degree area of the observation work sector. This area is the primary area of search.

(2) The recognition sector is the remainder of the observation work sector. In using the motive technique, the CPG/CPO looks forward of the aircraft and through the center of the acquisition sector for obvious sightings. He then scans through the acquisition sector, gradually working back toward the aircraft.

c. Stationary Technique. This technique is used at NOE altitudes with the aircraft hovering in a concealed position. When using the stationary technique, the crew makes a quick, overall search for sightings, unnatural colors, outlines, or movements. They start scanning to the immediate front, searching and area approximately 50 meters in depth. The crew continues to scan outward from the aircraft, increasing the depth of the search area by overlapping 50-meter intervals until they have covered the entire search area.

d. If no targets are found using the motive, side-scan, or stationary techniques and if time permits, crews may use their optics to make a careful, deliberate search of specific areas in their sector. This method is also used to search, in detail, small areas or locations with likely or suspected enemy activity.

(1) Concentrate on one specific area or location and study it intensely.

(2) Look for direct or indirect target signatures in a clockwise sweep around the focal point (key terrain feature) of the area.

(3) Some examples of signatures to look for are:

Dust created by movement or firing.

Diesel exhaust.

Track or tire marks on the ground.

Reflection from glass or metal.

Angular object that does not blend in with the surroundings.

Vegetation that seems out of place.

Radical movement of vegetation.

Flash or smoke from a firing gun or missile.

Entrenchments or earthworks.

6-8. TECHNIQUES FOR CREW SEARCH

a. Search for targets in FLIR (if available) wide field of view, both day and night. You can select a narrower field of view when you have a target acquired. Note: You should start with wide fields of view and when the target is acquired, select a narrower field. When firing at a target, select a wider field of view to observe munitions impacts. Many times attack crews will select a narrow field of view and maintain it through munitions impact. The crew will not be able to adjust the weapons on target if they do not see the impacts.

b. Use the laser range finder to determine how far you are looking. Crews normally use the laser range finder only to find ranges to an acquired target. The laser range finder can help ensure overlapping sectors of observation.

c. On qualification ranges, use the laser range finder to bracket a target before it pops up. For example, if you know a target is between 2,000 and 2,500 meters on a general azimuth from the firing point, use your laser to pick a point to observe at about 2,300 meters. When the target pops up, you will be looking in the general area, and target acquisition will be easier.

d. Switching between black and white hot on FLIR during a search will sometimes cause a target to appear. A well optimized FLIR, coupled with frequently reversing polarities, will help the crew acquire targets.

e. AH-64 and OH-58D KW crews should use their onboard video recorder during deliberate search. Playback of the videotape may reveal targets unseen during search.

6-9. TARGET DETECTION

Target detection is the discovery of objects (personnel, vehicles, equipment) of potential military significance on the battlefield. It is the first phase of target acquisition. Target detection occurs during crew search as a direct result of observing target signatures.

a. Target Signatures.

(1) Target signatures are telltale indicators or clues that help an observer detect potential targets on the battlefield. Most weapons and vehicles have identifiable signatures. These distinguishing characteristics may be the result of equipment design or the environment in which the equipment is used. For example, firing a tank main gun will produce blast, flash, dust, smoke, and noise.

(2) Look for targets where they are most likely to be employed. Look for track vehicle signatures in open areas and rolling terrain. Look for helicopters on the back side of woodlines, ridgelines, and significant folds in the terrain. Crews must be familiar with where enemy positions, both vehicular and dismounted, will likely be located. Some examples follow.

b. Examples of Target Signatures.

(1) Soldier signatures.

Foxholes.

Broken vegetation.

Footprints.

Camp fires.

• Cleared fields of fire.

(2) Track vehicle signatures.

Vehicle track on ground.

Dust clouds from movement.

Weapon's firing report and smoke.

Bright white flash at night.

Thermal signatures --

Suspension and exhaust systems will be more visible than the rest of the vehicle and surrounding area.

• A gun tube that has just fired will appear much brighter than a tube that has not.

• Normally the vehicle is more visible than the surrounding area and is readily visible when weather conditions permit.

(3) General signatures.

Sun glint from canopies, windshields, etc.

Vapor trails from shoulder fired missiles.

Dust and movement of foliage.

6-10. TARGET DETECTION CHALLENGES

Some targets are more difficult to detect than others. Increased crew sustainment training and greater concentration are needed to detect and locate them. Some examples of these more difficult targets and detection challenges are as follows:

a. Targets on the extreme edge of the field of view.

b. Targets that are camouflaged or in shadows.

c. Small, single targets such as a lone, dismounted ATGM or shoulder fired antiaircraft missile position.

d. Natural obstacles, such as weather and terrain.

e. Man-made obstacles, such as smoke and battlefield clutter.

f. Crew fatigue.

6-11. TARGET LOCATION

Target location is the determination of where a potential target is on the battlefield. Locating a target occurs as a result of observation and detection during crew search. The purpose of target location is to allow a crew member to fix or locate a target for their other crew member(s). For example, a pilot locating a target for his copilot/gunner. The most common target location methods are described below.

a. Clock Method. The clock method and sector methods are the fastest methods used to get the gunner on target. The crew bases 12 o'clock on the direction of helicopter movement while travelling, and on aircraft orientation, or the nose of the aircraft, when stationary. Example: "BMP, nine o'clock."

b. Sector Method. Similar in concept to the clock method, the sector method is quicker. It is best used to indicate a direction from the aircraft's direction of movement or orientation. Center sector is always to the direct front. Example: "BMP, left front."

c. Wheel Method. The wheel method is a relatively quick method. It is used primarily by the pilot to get the gunner on target. Example: "Turn left - stop turn - hold."

NOTE: When handing a target over to another aircraft, use a magnetic heading. The above stated methods may not be relevant to another crew due to their position.

6-12. TARGET CLASSIFICATION

Target classification is the grouping of potential targets by the relative level of danger they represent. It is determined by the aircrew after target acquisition has been completed. To defeat the many enemy targets that will appear on the battlefield, the crew must rapidly decide which targets present the greatest danger. Targets are classified as most dangerous, dangerous, or least dangerous. Estimate of the threat array, target by target, leads to a priority-of-engagement decision. The crew further analyzes the targets in terms of hard (tank) versus soft (truck), and single (tank) versus multiple (troops) to determine the proper ammunition (MPSM or PD rockets) and weapon system to use in the engagement.

a. Most Dangerous. When the crew observes an enemy target with air defense capabilities that appears to be preparing to engage them, the target is classified as most dangerous. This type of target is the greatest threat and must be engaged immediately. If more than one target is encountered, engage the closest one first.

b. Dangerous. When a crew sees a target with air defense capabilities, but that target is not preparing to engage them, the target is classified dangerous. This type of target should be engaged after all most dangerous targets have been destroyed, unless otherwise specified by the priority of engagements. Multiple dangerous targets are engaged the same as most dangerous targets--the closest one first.

c. Least Dangerous. A target that does not have an air defense capability, but can report you to one that does, is classified least dangerous. Engage this type of target after all most dangerous and dangerous targets have been destroyed, unless certain least dangerous targets have a high priority of engagement as in the case of command and control vehicles.

6-13. CONFIRMATION

Target confirmation is the rapid verification of the initial identification and classification of the target. Confirmation takes place after the crew has completed the fire commands except the execution command. The crew may complete the evaluation of the target based on the 6-step method. This technique may be used at the discretion of the commander. It provides a deliberate method for crews to classify a target. If the crew determines the target is enemy, they continue the engagement. However, if a crew answers unknown to the following questions, they probably should seek out assistance from other crews in the area unless they are taking fire.

Answer yes, no, or unknown for the following questions:

LINE 1: Is the vehicle located in a briefed enemy sector?

(Situational awareness--a yes response does not necessarily mean it is enemy.)

LINE 2: Is the vehicle oriented toward friendly positions?

(Situational awareness--a yes response does not necessarily mean it is enemy.)

LINE 3: Is the vehicle tracked?

(Categorizes the vehicle based on the briefed enemy situation. If it is not tracked, assume it is wheeled.)

LINE 4: Does the vehicle have a gun?

(Categorizes the vehicles as a potential threat. May distinguish the vehicle between tank and an APC.)

LINE 5: Does the vehicle have a turret?

(Further refines LINE 3. Also shifts attention to the turret, where the shape may help identify the vehicle.)

LINE 6: Does the vehicle have other equipment mounted on it?

(For example: radar, missiles. smoke generators, etc. May help identify an ADA system.)

Section III. Range Determination

6-14. RANGE DETERMINATION

The laser range finder is the primary method of determining range in attack helicopters. LRF malfunctions, environmental conditions, battlefield obscurant, or target size may force the crew to use alternate methods. This chapter explains how to determine range without the LRF.

a. Recognition Method.

(1) Range determination by recognition is simple and accurate when practiced. The target must be visible with the unaided eye. The principle of this method is that when the crew sees a target, they can determine the range according to what they recognize. For example, if a target can be recognized with the unaided eye as a tank, it is probably within 1,500 meters. Table 6-1 shows what the average person can identify with the naked eye at various ranges. The ranges shown are the maximum range for identification.

Table 6-1. Identification ranges

TARGET

UNAIDED EYE

Tank crew, troops, machine gun, antitank gun, mortar

500 meters

Tank, armored personnel carrier, truck--by model (i.e. T-72)

1,000 meters

Tank, howitzer, APC, truck--generic

1,500 meters

Armored vehicle, wheeled vehicle.

2,000 meters

(2) When using the recognition method, the size and clarity of the target in relation to its background must be considered. Some light and terrain conditions make a target seem closer; others make it seem farther away. The conditions outlined below may cause an error in estimating range by the recognition method.

(a) Seems closer--

Bright, clear day.

Sun in front of target.

Targets at higher elevations.

Bright colors.

Contrast.

Looking across ravines, hollows, rivers, depressions.

Desert.

At sea.

(b) Seems farther--

Fog, rain, hazy.

Sun behind target.

Targets at lower elevations.

Small targets.

Dark colors.

Camouflaged targets.

b. Map Method. A map can be used to determine range to target. The CPG/CPO finds position of his aircraft on the map using doppler (or other navigation system) coordinates or terrain positioning. He then determines the position of the target. Once the position of the aircraft and the target are determined, he measures the distance between the two to determine range. All aircrews must carry maps even if their aircraft has electronic navigation devices.

c. Known Ranges. Using battle position cards or similar techniques, the aircrew can overcome a laser range finder failure. When positioned in the battle position, the BPC allows the crew to determine ranges from the battle position to center of mass of the engagement area.

d. Mil Relationship Method. The mil relation method is useful in deliberate range determination. To use this method, the width, length, or height of the target must be known. Measure the width, length, or height with the helicopter's optics; substitute the mil relation; and compute the range. Accuracy depends on knowledge of target dimensions and the ability of the individual to make measurements with the helicopter's displays, and the ability to make the relations between the measurement and the actual target range.

(1) There are approximately 18 mils in one degree. The mil is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of circle. One mil equals a width (or height) of 1 meter at a range of 1,000 meters. The relationship of the angle, the length of the sides of the angle, and the width (height) between the sides remain constant.

(2) Table 6-2 can help aircrews determine range to target when the helicopter's LRF is not working. Aircrews can use this chart for training deliberate range determination.

Table 6-2. Mil/range table, tank, and APC

AVERAGE THREAT TANK

VEHICLE

MIL ANGLE AND RANGE IN METERS

DIMENSION

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

Length
6.7 meters

13400

6700

4467

3350

2680

2233

1914

1675

1489

1340

1218

1117

1031

957

Width
3.4 meters

6800

3400

2267

1700

1360

1133

971

850

756

680

618

567

523

486

Full height
2.3 meters

4600

2300

1533

1150

920

767

657

575

511

460

418

383

354

329

Turret height
1 meter

2000

1000

667

500

400

333

286

250

222

200

182

167

154

143

AVERAGE THREAT ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

VEHICLE

MIL ANGLE AND RANGE IN METERS

DIMENSION

.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

Length
6.4 meters

12800

6400

4267

3200

2560

2133

1829

1600

1422

1280

1164

1067

985

914

Width
2.6 meters

5200

2600

1733

1300

1040

867

743

650

578

520

473

433

400

371

Full height
2.1 meters

4200

2100

1400

1050

840

700

600

525

467

420

382

350

323

300

e. The Mil Relation. The relationship of the angle in mils (m), the length of the sides (or range) in thousands of meters (R), and the width between the ends of the sides in meters (W) is expressed as the mil relation of:

W = m
R



Because the mil relation is constant, other units of measurement such as yards, feet, or inches may be substituted for meters in expressing width or range. However, the relation holds true only if both W and R are expressed in the same unit. For example, if the sides of a 1 mil angle are extended to 1,000 yards, the width between the ends of the sides is 1 yard. Computations are difficult in a busy cockpit. The following formula is the easiest to use and is preferred for quick range computations.

RANGE TO TARGET = (WIDTH OF TARGET/MIL) X 1,000

NOTE: Remember -- Width refers to the measurement of width, length, or height of the vehicle.

 



Using this formula, divide the width of the target by the determined mil measurement and multiply by 1,000. If you round the mil values to a whole number and memorize a mil value for each of one or two fields of view in your helicopter's optics, practice will produce accurate, quick range determinations. Table 6-3 shows some average measurements (in meters) to use in the above formula.

Table 6-3. Average measurements in meters

TYPE VEHICLE

LENGTH

WIDTH

HEIGHT

TURRET

TANK

7m

3m

2m

1m

APC

6m

3m

2m

 

6-15. AIRCRAFT MIL VALUES

The key to determining range with the mil method is that the aircrew must remember mil values that relate to their particular aircraft. The training program should focus on using one or two selected mil values that can be easily remembered by the aircrew. Focusing on a few values can speed up the process and produce ranges consistently.

a. Mil Determination for the AH-64.

(1) Pilot's display - PNVS

Center of LOS reticle to the ends of the horizontal and vertical lines: 33.3 mils.

Each of the four lines of the LOS reticle represents 27.7 mils.

When fixed gun is used, the cued LOS reticle represents the same mil value as the LOS reticle.

Tip to tip 66.6 mils

Center to tip 33.3 mils

Center space 22.2 mils

(2) HDU and ORT displays (HDU, HOD, HDD). These displays are used by the CPG and provide him with a 50-degree field of view down to .45 degrees depending on the sensor and field of view selected. Table 6-4 shows the mil values for FLIR and DTV fields of view and reticles. It also shows the mil values for the AH-64's LOS in various fields of view. Round numbers are used in range formula.

Table 6-4. Mil values for the AH-64

SENSOR

FOV

HFOV

VFOV

HRET

VRET

HGAP

VGAP

TV

W

56.9

42.7

11.7

8.8

1.4

.9

TV

N

12.8

9.6

2.6

2.0

.3

.2

TV

Z

6.4

4.8

1.3

1.0

.2

.1

FLIR

W

711.2

533.4

145.8

110.2

17.8

10.7

FLIR

M

145.1

108.3

29.7

22.5

3.6

2.2

FLIR

N

44.1

33.1

9.0

6.8

1.1

.7

FLIR

Z

22.0

16.5

4.5

3.4

.6

.3

KEY:

1. SENSOR: Day TV or FLIR

2. FOV: Field of View

3. HFOV: Horizontal field of view

4. VFOV: Vertical field of view

5. HRET: Horizontal LOS reticle, outside tip to outside tip

6. VRET: Vertical LOS reticle, outside tip to outside tip

7. HGAP: Gap in center of LOS reticle, measured horizontally

8. VGAP: Gap in center of LOS reticle, measured vertically

b. Mil determination for the AH-1.

(1) Pilot/gunner HSS.

Center circle: 20 mil diameter.

Horizontal and vertical gap: 10 mils.

Crosshair width: 1.5 mil.

(2) TSU reticle--HIGH MAG.

4 inboard hash marks: 1 mil from center.

4 outboard hash marks: 5 mils from center.

(3) Stadiametric reticle--HUD. The dots on the sight are positioned as follows from center:

1 DOT = 23.8 mils above.

2 DOTS = 4.5 mils above.

3 DOTS = 27.9 mils below.

4 DOTS = 77.4 mils below.

5 DOTS = 149.4 mils below.

c. Mil Determination for the OH-58D (KW). Table 6-5 shows the mil values for the KW MFD.

Table 6-5. Mil values for the Kiowa Warrior

SENSOR

FOV

RAS/WT

RAS/HT

MMS LOS/
R/A/G

MMS LOS/HF

GPC

GPCL/
H-V

TV

W

.6

20.2

2.9

4.2

10.2

19.2

TV

N

.4

5.0

.7

1.0

2.6

4.8

TIS

W

2.0

25.2

3.6

5.2

12.8

24

TIS

W 2x

1.0

12.6

1.8

2.6

6.4

12

TIS

N

.6

7.6

1.1

1.6

3.8

7.2

TIS

N 2x

.3

3.8

.5

.8

1.9

3.6

KEY:

1. RAS/WT: Rocket Aiming Symbol, Width

2. RAS/HT: Rocket Aiming Symbol, Height

3. MMS LOS/R/A/G: MMS Line of sight, Rockets, ATAS, Gun

4. MMS LOS/ HF: MMS Line of sight, Hellfire

5. GPC: Gun Pitch Cue, Solid Ring

6. GPCL/H-V: Gun Pitch Cue Lines, Horizontal and Vertical



6-16. LASER-OFF OPERATIONS

a. Laser range finders can fail. Always have a back-up plan.

b. Very few units can use their laser range finders during routine home-station training. Use the mil determination methods to send spot reports, target-handovers, and battle damage assessments. In addition, units may set up a training program on the ground using M22 binoculars. These binoculars have mil scales and are useful in reinforcing the methods of mil-based range determination before execution in the aircraft.

Section IV. Crew Communication

6-17. CREW COMMUNICATION

a. The attack helicopter's cockpit is very busy during an engagement. Review of videotapes of actual weapons engagements from recent conflicts shows that communication between crew members lacks standardization and is often confusing. Because the sequence of communication is unknown, crew members become confused in the busy cockpit. Crew members sometimes become irritated with their fellow crew member because of a communication breakdown.

(1) Rote memorization of words by crews is not the intent of this section. The intent is for the phrases to make sense, and become part of the crew vocabulary through training. The TCs 1-209, 1-213, and 1-214 discuss crew coordination and establishes a list of standardized phrases.

(2) The purpose of this section is to define the process of cockpit communication and outline the steps necessary to implement standard fire commands.

b. Some reasons why crews should use a standard fire commands during engagements are as follows:

(1) Crew turnover. When crew turnover occurs either in combat or peacetime, the commander may have to cross-level crews quickly to meet missions. Crews must use standard sequences during target acquisition and engagement to avoid confusion between newly assigned crew members.

(2) Time sequence. Testing shows standard sequences during target acquisition and engagement significantly reduce the time required to employ the helicopter's weapons systems.

(3) Focus. Standard sequences helps the crew to stay focused during demanding engagements. A demonstrated positive habit transfer between training exercises and actual employment of the weapons exists when all crew members are drilled in the proper communication sequence.

c. Crew communication and crew coordination are terms describing interaction between crew members. Listed below are the essential elements of this interaction:

(1) Communicate positively. Communication is positive when the sender directs, announces, requests, or offers. The receiver acknowledges the sender. Positive communication--

(a) Is quickly and clearly understood.

(b) Permits timely actions.

(c) Uses a limited vocabulary to improve understanding in a work-intensive cockpit.

(2) Direct assistance. Direct assistance is necessary when one crew member cannot reasonably be expected to know what or when assistance is needed by the other crew member. An example is communication during an aircraft emergency procedure.

(3) Announce actions. Each crew member will announce actions that effect the other crew member.

(4) Offer assistance. A crew member will offer assistance when he sees the other crew member needs help.

(5) Acknowledge actions. Crew members must understand directives and announcements from other crew members. Acknowledgements must be short and positively indicate that the message was received and understood.

(6) Be explicit. Crew members should use clear terms and phrases and positively acknowledge critical information.

6-18. FIRE COMMANDS

a. The following outlines the elements of standard fire commands. All target engagements or use of weapons systems can use standard fire commands.

Alert.

Target location.

Movement commands.

Target identification..

Weapon selection.

Weapon engagement.

Weapon effect.

Adjust fire command.

b. The following is an explanation of each element of the standard fire command. For this explanation, target refers to ground targets and air targets.

(1) Alert. This is notification of the other crew member that a target has been spotted.

(2) Target location. The crew member who observed the target tells the other crew member its location.

(3) Movement commands. Command to the crew member flying the aircraft. Explains how to maneuver the aircraft to engage the target.

(4) Target identification. Crew determines what the target is. If not readily apparent, the crew uses deliberate action to classify the target.

(5) Weapon selection. Crew determines appropriate weapon for engagement. If a missile is to be fired, gunner will announce which side of the aircraft the missile will be launched from.

(6) Weapon engagement. Crew member firing will announce "Shot" prior to trigger pull for missiles or rockets, or "Firing" for cannon.

(7) Weapon effect. Firing crew member reports target effect for BDA.

(8) Adjust fire command. This command adjusts the fire of weapons on target. It is primarily used for engagement with rockets. It is similar to shift commands for artillery.

6-19. LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS

Lines of communications must be established or communicated during each step of the engagement. The following example contains the information that should be passed between the crew members.

a. Alert.

PILOT: "Gunner, target."

Indicates the pilot sees a target and he wants to hand the target over to the CPG for identification

COPILOT: "Tally."

Tells the pilot that the copilot sees the target.

b. Target Location.

COPILOT: "240 degrees, 3,200 meters."

Tells the pilot the location of the target.

c. Movement Command.

COPILOT: "Turn right to 240 degrees."

PILOT: "Turning right to 240 degrees."

Copilot tells pilot to turn aircraft. Pilot repeats command for confirmation.

d. Target Identification.

COPILOT: "BMP, 3,200 meters."

Copilot identifies target and states range.

e. Weapons Selection.

COPILOT: "One Hellfire ready, left side. Designating." (Denotes missile will be launched from left side of aircraft).

Copilot states weapon of choice for engagement and declares laser status. Pilot maneuvers aircraft into constraints.

PILOT: "Turning right, in constraints."

f. Weapon Engagement.

COPILOT: "Shot."

Indicates trigger pull for weapon.

g. Weapons Effect.

COPILOT: "Target destroyed."

Tells pilot target is destroyed.

h. Weapon Adjust. Used primarily for rocket engagements.

Not applicable for this example.

6-20. PHRASEOLOGY

The most important aspect of crew coordination is the sequence. The following phrases are used to conduct crew coordination.

a. Alert Terminology.

(1) Target. A groundborne target has been spotted.

(2) Bogey. An unidentified airborne target has been spotted.

(3) Bandit. An identified hostile airborne target has been spotted.

(4) Gunner, target. The pilot wants to hand a target over to the copilot/gunner or door gunner.

(5) Pilot, target. The gunner wants to hand a target over to the pilot.

NOTE: "Bogey" or "bandit" may be substituted for "target" in (4) and (5) above.

(6) Multiple targets. Alert that more than one groundborne target has been spotted.

(7) Multiple bandits (Bogeys). Alerts that more than one airborne target has been spotted.

b. Target Location.

(1) Identification of target (if known).

(2) Magnetic heading to the target, for example, "090 degrees." Heading is stated from nose of aircraft.

(3) Range to target. Estimated range or laser range to target.

c. Movement Commands (If Required).

(1) Break. Immediate action command to perform a maneuver to deviate from present ground track. It will be followed by the word "right" or "left."

(2) Hold.

(a) At hover. Maintain present hover altitude and heading.

(b) In flight. Maintain airspeed, altitude, and heading.

(3) Slide. Horizontal movement of aircraft followed by a direction, "left, right, forward, or back."

(4) Stop. Go no further; halt present action.

(5) Turn.

(a) At hover. Perform pedal turn right or left.

(b) In flight. Turn right or left from current ground track.

(6) Stop Turn. Terminates turn. Pilot holds heading/altitude present at stop turn command.

d. Target Identification. Self-explanatory. The crew states the identity of the target.

e. Weapons Selection. Self-explanatory. Engaging crew member will announce the weapon of choice for target engagement.

f. Weapons Engagement.

(1) Ready. Used by the pilot or gunner during engagements. Tells the other crew member that the selected weapon is ready to fire.

(2) Shot. Announced at trigger pull for rocket or missile engagements.

(3) Firing. Announced at trigger pull for cannon engagements.

(4) Searching. Indicates that the gunner is actively searching for targets or that he has selected a wider field of view and is observing the target area for munitions impacts.

(5) Match and shoot. Cooperative rocket engagement in AH-64. Tells the pilot that the CPG is ready, range is in FCC, and that the pilot can line-up symbology to fire rockets.

g. Weapons Effect.

(1) Hit. Rounds complete and target was hit.

(2) Destroyed. Rounds complete and target was killed.

(3) Miss. Rounds complete and target was not hit.

(4) Adjusting. Command from gunner that a miss has occurred and rounds are being adjusted to target.

(5) Bad missile. Indicates an apparent missile malfunction has occurred based on suspect flight path.

h. Adjust Fire Commands.

(1) Range adjustments.

(a) Long. Impact is behind the target.

(b) Short. Impact is in front of the target.

(2) Azimuth adjustments.

(a) Line. Azimuth is correct.

(b) Left. Impact is to left of the target.

(c) Right. Impact is to right of the target.

(3) Examples of adjust fire commands.

(a) Short, line. Impact is in front of the target, but the azimuth is correct.

(b) Long, left. Impact is to the left and behind the target.

(c) Short, right. Impact is to the right and in front of the target.

i. Miscellaneous.

(1) Cease fire. Command to stop firing but continue to track.

(2) Heads down. Indicates the gunner is in a weapons mode. The gunner's attention is primarily focused inside the aircraft.

(3) Heads up. Indicates the gunner is not in a weapons mode. The gunner's attention is primarily focused outside the aircraft.

(4) Strobe. Indication by the pilot that the aircraft is being tracked by a radar. It will be followed by a heading direction and an identification of the radar, if possible.

(5) Spot. Laser target designation energy is being received.

(6) Tally. I can see the traffic, obstacle, or target.

(7) Drifting. An alert to the unintentional or uncommanded movement of the aircraft.

(8) Looking. Traffic, obstacle, or target is being acquired.

(9) No joy. Traffic, obstacle, or target not seen or identified.

(10) Traffic. Refers to friendly aircraft that may present a hazard to the current route of flight of your aircraft. Will be followed by an approximate clock position, altitude, and distance.

(11) Visual. Contact is established visually.

6-21. REMOTE HELLFIRE MISSILE FIRING

A remote Hellfire missile call for fire is a concise message initiated by the laser designator. It contains all information the designator and launch aircraft need to effect an engagement with the exception of the exact positioning of the two aircraft. Because of the specific parameters that are required to safely and successfully fire remote Hellfire missiles, the engagements are usually preplanned or part of unit SOPs. The remote designator will ensure the proper constraints are met when positioning is in question. For example, if more than 60 degrees exist between the designating and firing aircraft's laser-target line, the designating aircraft has the responsibility to move.

6-22. REMOTE CALL FOR FIRE

The call for fire is transmitted in four parts consisting of seven elements.

a. The four parts are as follows:

(1) Designator identification and warning order.

(2) Number of missiles, target location, and control.

(3) Ready call with time of flight of missile, if known.

(4) Execution call.

b. The seven elements of the call for fire are as follows:

(1) Designator identification.

(2) Warning order.

(3) Number of missiles requested with requested code.

(4) Targeting information and laser target line.

(5) Ready call with time of flight.

(6) Execution call.

(7) Battle damage assessment.

6-23. CALL FOR FIRE DESCRIPTION

a. Designator Identification. The designator identification call tells the launch aircraft who is calling for the missiles, and it clears the net for the mission.

b. Warning Order. The warning order alerts the launch crew of the upcoming mission request.

c. Number Of Missiles Requested. Self-explanatory. Missiles are always launched on the designator's designated code. For multiple missiles, unless specified, launch aircraft will launch missiles with 15-second separation. Also, unless specified, launch crew will select LOAL-L or LOAL-H depending on terrain masks, cloud ceiling, and target range.

NOTE: The designating crew assumes that the launch crew accepts the mission if they acknowledge the warning order transmission. If the launch crew cannot accept the mission, they alert the designating crew at this time and give the reason for not accepting the mission. For example, the launch crew responds "Blue 6, mission denied, out of missiles."

d. Targeting Information. This information allows the launch aircraft to launch the missile on the proper heading, laser target line, and within range constraints. The target location can be a grid coordinate (6 or 8 digit) or a preplotted target reference point. Designating aircraft will announce "Call when ready," "Fire when ready," or "At my command." If available, target altitude should also be included in this transmission.

e. Ready Call and Time of Flight. The launch aircraft calls the designator when he is ready to fire and provides the missile time of flight.

f. Execution Call. The designator initiates the missile launch by transmitting "Fire, over" if he specified "At my command." The launch aircraft responds with "Shot, over" when the missile is launched. The designator responds with "Shot, out."

(1) For multiple launches, the launch aircraft will announce "Shot one, over," 15 second delay, "Shot two, over."

(2) The designating aircraft may also specify "Fire when ready." When this command is given, the firing aircraft fires the missile when ready. The firing aircraft announces "Shot, over" when the missile is fired.

g. BDA. The designating aircraft will send BDA to the launch aircraft.

6-24. EXAMPLE OF CALL FOR FIRE, ONE MISSILE, TWO AHs

NOTE: The numbers in parentheses denote the sequence of radio transmissions.

DESIGNATING AIRCRAFT - BLUE 6
LAUNCH AIRCRAFT - BLUE 4

(1) BLUE 4, THIS IS BLUE 6, ONE
ALPHA, OVER.

(2) BLUE 6, THIS IS BLUE 4 ONE ALPHA, OUT.(Denotes mission acceptance)

(3) GRID AA 12345678, ALTITUDE
1078,LTL 160, CALL READY, OVER.

(4) GRID AA 12345678,ALTITUDE 1078, LTL 160, ROGER, OUT.

(5) READY, TIME OF FLIGHT 20 SECONDS

(6) TOF 20 SECONDS (STANDBY
OR FIRE) FIRE, OVER.

(7) SHOT, OVER

(8) SHOT, OUT

(9) BDA: 1 T-72 DESTROYED, GRID
AA 12345678, TIME: 2115.

(10) BDA: 1 T-72 DESTROYED, GRID: AA 12345678 TIME: 2115.

6-25. EXAMPLE OF CALL FOR FIRE, TWO MISSILES, RIPPLE FIRE, TWO AHs

NOTE: The numbers in parentheses denote the sequence of radio transmissions.

DESIGNATING AIRCRAFT - BLUE 6
LAUNCH AIRCRAFT - BLUE 4

(1) BLUE 4, THIS IS BLUE 6, ONE
ALPHA, ONE BRAVO, RIPPLE, OVER.

(2) BLUE 6, THIS IS BLUE 4 ONE
ALPHA, ONE BRAVO, RIPPLE, OUT.

(3) GRID AA 12345678, LTL 160,
CALL READY, OVER.

(4) GRID AA 12345678, LTL 160,
ROGER, OUT.

(5) READY, TIME OF FLIGHT 20
SECONDS

(6) TOF 20 SECONDS (STANDBY OR
FIRE) FIRE, OVER.

(7) SHOT ONE, OVER

(8) SHOT ONE, OUT

(9) SHOT TWO, OVER

(10) SHOT TWO, OUT

(11) BDA: 2 T-72s DESTROYED,
GRID AA 12345678, TIME: 2115.

(12) BDA: 2 T-72s DESTROYED,
GRID: AA 12345678, TIME: 2115.

6-26. AUTONOMOUS FIRE MISSION TO APACHE

NOTE: The numbers in parentheses denote the sequence of ratio transmissions.

CALLING AIRCRAFT - BLUE 6
SHOOTING AIRCRAFT - BLUE 4

(1) BLUE 4, THIS IS BLUE 6, FIRE
MISSION, (GUN, ROCKETS, HELLFIRE),
OVER.

(2) BLUE 6, THIS IS BLUE 4, FIRE MISSION, HELLFIRE, OUT.

(3) ONE T-72, (POLAR, SHIFT FROM
KNOWN POINT, OR GRID) GRID AA
12345678, 1078 FT., ALPHA SPOT
ON, OVER.

(4) ONE T-72, GRID AA 12345678, 1078 FT, TALLY ALPHA SPOT, OUT.

(5) CALL SPOT (OR FIRING),
OVER.

(6) FIRING, OVER

(7) BDA: 1 T-72 DESTROYED,
GRID: AA 12345678, TIME: 2115.

(8) ROGER, END OF MISSION, OUT.

NOTE: On transmission #3, the calling aircraft may use the following for handover:

(Polar: 360 degrees, 4,000 meters from my location.

Shift from known point: 2 kilometers south of TRP 5, EA CAT.

Grid: AA 12345678, 1,078 feet (altitude).

Laser spot tracker operations are recommended for this procedure.

Section V. Precombat Checks

6-27. PRECOMBAT CHECKS

a. Commanders conduct precombat checks to ensure the unit is prepared for the mission. Aircrews and aircraft require extensive precombat checks to ensure mission readiness.

b. Precombat checks are a part of all missions and are included in this manual to increase the probability of successful helicopter gunnery operations. The following paragraphs contain a suggested format for the aircrew precombat checks.

6-28. BEFORE MISSION RECEIPT CHECKS

a. Preflight the aircraft per appropriate checklist with PPC in progress. Place aircraft logbook in a known location, preferably in the aircraft.

b. Refuel the aircraft and load it with ammunition (if applicable). Compute weight and balance for the aircraft load.

c. Place aircrews on appropriate crew rest schedule. Crew rest should be tracked by the commander and ASO.

6-29. UPON MISSION RECEIPT

The commander and company planning cells provide the following information to the crews: (This information is gathered from the various unit staff sections.)

a. Navigation/air route planning according to posted A2C2 plan.

*b. Communications card or SOIs.

*c. COMSEC/IFF codes for aircraft.

*d. Mission graphics.

e. Fire support and fire distribution on the objective.

*f. Weather and light data and fuel requirements.

g. Tactical flight plan preparation and filing.

h. Risk assessment.

*i. Assessment of enemy capability.

*j. Actions on contact.

NOTE: Much of this information may be developed concurrently with the staff. The items marked with the asterisks contain information that can be continually tracked and updated prior to mission receipt.

6-30. PREPARING FOR THE MISSION

Following receipt of the mission briefing (either written or oral), the mission unit executes the following:

a. The commander conducts a briefing to cover more detailed flight and tactical procedures for the mission aircrews. The crew briefing contained in FM 1-112 is recommended.

b. The planning cells receive updates from the staff, continually updating the friendly and enemy situation, as well as weather and environmental considerations.

c. By backward planning, the commander and planning cells determine the mission's time sequence.

d. A flight plan or field strip is filed at flight operations with a current risk assessment for the mission.

6-31. FINAL CHECKS

Before the crews move to the aircraft, the following checks will take place:

a. Graphics. Check mission graphics for completeness and accuracy. The commander or a designated platoon leader will inspect the mission graphics of the mission crews. Use a known, properly prepared map as the baseline. This technique can be ongoing through the planning process, but a quick check before the mission is critical.

b. Communications Card. If the crews copy their own frequencies and callsigns, designate a crew member to read the card aloud to the crews to check accuracy. Ensure crews know the proper frequencies to conduct communications check.

c. Mission Statement and Commander's Intent. The commander will read the mission statement and the commander's intent to the crews.

d. Chain of Command. Restate the chain of command and reiterate the downed pilot points and the SERE plan at this time. Ask for questions and send the crews to their aircraft.

6-32. CREW CHECKS

Crews will check the following items before getting into the aircraft:

a. Crew members within limits of crew endurance policy.

b. Aircraft ignition key is present.

c. Aviation life support equipment, both personal and crew, present.

d. Checklist, -10 manual, and all mission-related publications available.

e. Special mission equipment (such as NVGs, sidearms) available and function check complete.

f. COMSEC and IFF codes loaded in appropriate equipment.

6-33. RUN-UP CHECKS

a. Complete start sequence according to the appropriate -10 checklist.

b. Crews are required to complete weapons system initialization according to the appropriate aircraft ATM. For armed helicopters, weapons checks and boresights are considered one of the most critical precombat checks.

6-34. COMMUNICATIONS CHECK

For brevity, complete the communications check in the following manner. Techniques for communications checks may not be compatible with all communications packages in armed helicopters. The commander may use this technique for SOP development.

a. Chalk 1 starts the check on FM, selects UHF and transmits, and then selects VHF and transmits. For example, "THIS IS (callsign) ON 1 (FM internal frequency, nonsecure), 2 (UHF internal frequency), and 3 (VHF internal frequency)."

b. This process continues through the chalk order until all aircraft in the flight have checked. All aircraft will monitor to determine which radios work on which aircraft.

c. Chalk 1 announces "THIS IS (callsign), GO SECURE ON 1." This call instructs the flight to select the secure mode for their FM radio. The check progresses as listed in paragraph 6-34a, but only the FM is used.

d. Once FM secure is checked, the flight can go active on HAVE QUICK, with a designated aircraft in the flight sending the time.

(1) If crews use this procedure during all training missions, communications checks become quick and routine. The commander may need to readjust radio nets due to nonfunctioning radios in the flight. It is very important to let all crews know which radios the nets are on prior to takeoff.

(2) Once all checks are complete and the commander is satisfied the flight can communicate, he will call "EXECUTE CARD." This command will tell the crews to tune their radios to the predetermined nets for the mission, and it probably will be the last radio transmission until takeoff.

6-35. CONCLUSION

When the commander or AMC calls for takeoff, he must assume that the crews in his flight have conducted all weapons system checks. Units should practice precombat checks before all training missions. When practiced regularly, these checks will become routine and easily accomplished.